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šaa only; about, approximately. šaagay thick stitched leather (one of the instruments of corporal punishment and torture in pre-revolutionary Tuva); corporal punishment (torture) by means of thick stitched leather. šaanak Sibirian juniper. šaar far, distant; šaar ïrakta dag köstüp čïtkan in the far distance a mountain was visible. šaar tea dregs. [Kh šaar] šaarar- to shine through, to show through. šaaškak hornet, gadfly; cf. maas. šaaškak scrofula. šaažaŋ bowl, drinking glass. [LM siγaĵang] šag time; šagda at that time, long ago; erte šagda in earlier times; šagda-la a long time ago; šaanda far; long time ago; šaandagï šagda in ancient times, a long time ago. [LM čaγ] šag force, power; bar šaa-bile with all one’s might. šagaa New Year celebration (in spring). [LM] šagalaa- to celebrate the New Year. [LM čaγala-] šagaan-teve a very large species of spider. šagar-arï wasp. šagar-oht stinging nettle (Urtica, Urticaceae). šak clock, watch; hour. [LM čaγ] šak exactly, right. [<CT *čak] šak- (šagar) to lighten, to kindle, to make fire; to sting (of insects). [<CT *čak-] šakïr- cf. čakïr- to call, to cry. šakkïla- to clang. [<CT *čakïla-] šala floor. [LM šala] šala a bit, a little, somewhat, slightly; half, lacking, incompletely; šala oožum quietish; šala uzun longish; šala kïl- to leave unfinished; šala küüset- to underfulfil; šala udu- to not get enough sleep; šala čugaala- ?to leave unsaid. šalaŋ back part of the thigh of a horse or cow. šalba lasso; throwing of the lasso. šalbaa put, puddle, swamp. [LM šalbaγa] šaldaŋ bare, half-dressed, without trousers. [LM šaldang] šalïŋ dew; šalïŋ düžüpken it dewed; šalïŋ kurgay bergen the dew dried up; cf. šaŋ. [<NE *čalïm ~ *čalïn] šalïŋ (rate of) pay, wages, salary. šalïpčï shock-worker; šalïpčï brigada shock-brigade. šambïla paradise. [LM šambala ←Skt] šana ski. šanak sled, sleigh. šandïr layer of meat covering the belly of an animal. šanï (male) cousin. [<CT *čïkan] šanïškïlar (male) cousins. šaŋ threshing floor. [←Ch] šaŋ reward. [LM šang ←Ch] šaŋ hoarfrost; cf. šalïŋ. šaŋda bark, rind. šaŋna- to award. [LM šangna-] šaŋnal praise, prize. [LM šangnal] šaŋnal- to become covered with hoarfrost. šap- (šavar) to hit, to beat; to gallop (on horseback); to assault (of a stallion or camel). [<CT *čap-] šapkïn stormy, hasty, busy, quick. šaptï blunt. šaptïkta- to hinder, to obstruct. šara phlegm. šarï bull, ox. [LM šar] šarï- to bind, to tie, to bandage. šartïlaa locust, grasshopper. šarlan aspen. šartay- to swell up, to become swollen. šaš- (šančar) to hit; to stab, to poke; örgen saš- to pitch a stake; öttür šaš- to pierce, to transfix; ooŋ xöree šančïp turgan s/he felt a stabbing pain in the chest. [<CT *sanč-] šat mountain ridge; plateau, table land. šatta- to go over mountain ridges, through plateaus, tablelands. šattïg having mountain ridges, plateaus, tablelands. šavaga sparse shrub, bush; a small fish. šavïlïïr hind saddlegirth. [Mo] šay tea. šayzïrak (kiži) tea-lover, habitual tea-drinker. šažïn religion. [LM šasin ←Skt] šeer mal small livestock: sheep, goats. šeer aarïg venereal disease. šeežek: biče šeežek little finger. šeežile- to learn by rote, to learn by heart; cf. doktaat-. [LM čegeĵile-] šekpen cloth (woolen). šel- to rip, to pull; to scribble. šene- to try. šenek elbow, forearm. [<CT *čekenek] šeŋne wild peony. [cf. LM čene] šergi [šehrgi] grasshopper. šerig soldier; army. [<CT *čerig] šet young larch tree. šever artistic, skillful, exemplary; accurate, tasteful, fine, neat, tidy; šever xoldar skillful hands; šever dargan master smith; šever čuraan ugulza a skilfully drwan pattern; šever xol üžüü neat handwriting. ševergin fine, neat, tidy; ševergin xep fine clothes. ševerle- to clean, to tidy up; öreel ištin ševerle- to do the room, to tidy up the room. ševerlekči one who puts the final touches on. ševerlen- to tidy oneself up. šig direction, orientation. [LM čig] šigbey awl; cf. šivegey. šii theater-play. [LM si] šiit- to judge. šiitpirle- to decide. šiitpirlig decisive. šil glass; bottle. [LM sil ←LT šel] šil-daš mica. šilči- to go through, to go over, to move over. šilčit- to transfer, to convert. šilege ram in its second year. [LM silüge] šilegey saliva, drool (e.g. of small children when teething). [LM silükei] šilen heron, egret, stork. šilgi reddish, ginger, chestnut (horse coat, cows). šili- to select, to choose. [LM sili-] šilire- to rustle. šilireš- to rustle together; to copulate. šim- to close the eyes; cf. šiy-. [<CT *yim-] šimče- to move, to shake. šimčeeškin movement, motion. šimčet- to make move. šime- to adorn, to decorate. [LM čime-] šimeen sound, noise. [LM čimege(n)] šimeŋne- cf. šiveŋne- to be glimpsed fleetingly. šimeš ?onom. šimi milk production. šimir-šimir pit-a-pat. šimire- (of the heart) to miss a beat, to stop beating; čürek šimirep tur my heart stopped beating. šimirt pit-a-pat; šimirt de- of the heart to miss a beat, to go pit-a-pat; čüreem šimirt didi my heart missed a beat. šinčeeči student, learned person, scholar; cf. šinčilekči. šinči appearance. [LM sinĵi] šinči- to research, to learn. [LM sinĵi-] šinčile- to research, to learn. [LM sinĵile-] šinčileeškin research. šinčilekči student, learned person, scholar; cf. šinčeeči. [LM sinĵilegči] šinčilel research. [LM sinĵilel] šinik well-attired, trimmed. šiŋgeet- to master, to acquire, to pick up (culture, writings). [cf. LM singgege-] šiŋme cf. šüŋme (very) well, all right. širbi- to sweep. [LM sirbe-] širbiiš (~ širbiil) broom, besom. [LM sirbegül] širee small table. [LM sirege(n)] širikte- to cut out sods in layers; to make a turf edging around a flowerbed. širtek felt rug, bedding. šiš sharp, pointed; a spit, skewer, point; small stick, sharpened at both ends, which is inserted in the nose of a calf to prevent it from drinking from its mother, or in the nose of bulls and camels in order to lead them; šiš buluŋ sharp angle; šiš bört pointed hat. [<CT *sï:š ~ *si:š] šiškiiš sieve. šište- to splinter, to prick, to pin down; to grill on a skewer; šišteen eht skwered meat. šištey- to be sharp; to jut out, to protrude, to surge, to rise above; šölde čagï šištee bergen tur a pole stood out in the field. šišteyt- to make sharp. šivegey cf. šigbey awl. [cf. LM sibegür] šivegey-dumčuk species of sandpiper. šiveŋne- to be glimpsed fleetingly; cf šimeŋne-, karaŋna-. šiveš twinkling, inkling, flash; šiveš de- to flash, to swiftly pass by; cf. čiveš. šivi spruce. [NE] šiviškin spy. šiviškinne- to spy. šiy- cf. šim- to close the eyes. šïda- to be able, can; to bear, to stand. [LM čida-] šïdamïk steadfast, solid, stubborn. šïdaš- to bear with, to stand. šïdïraa chess; cf. xöl-šïdïraa. [LM sitara ←Ir šatarang] šïga- to point at, to aim. šïgban rod; cf. ïgban. šïgï- to become wet, moist. [cf. CT *čï:] šïgïra- to creak, to make a creaking sound. [<CT *čïkra-] šïgïrat- to let creak, make a creaking sound. [<CT *čïkrat-] šïgït- to moisten. šïgža- to preserve, to keep, to gather. šïïr trampled-down snow. šïïrak strong, powerful. šïk moisture, dampness; meadow; šïk čer meadow. [cf. CT *čï:] šïktïg moist, damp. šïla- to get tired with, to be tired of, to get weary. šïlaazïnnïg tiresome. šïlag tiredness, weariness, fatigue. šïlba willow bark, bark of shrub. šïlgalda examination, trial. [LM silγalta] šïlgaraŋgay outstanding. šïlgat- to be tried, to be examined. šïlïyaa breech band (harness). [←Rus šleja] šïmbay fair, good enough, quite, rather; šïmbay sad rather nice garden; šïmbay palto fairly decent coat; šïmbayïn moŋ! you see! how do you like that! šïmčï- to pinch, to nip, to tweak; xolun šïmčï- to pinch one’s hand. šïmčïm pinch, smidgen; šïmčïm taakpï a pinch of tobacco; šimčïm dus a pinch of salt. šïmïl larva, grub. [LM simuγul] šïmïr short, low of growth; cf. šïmïraš. šïmïraŋna- to look sideways, to avert the eyes, (of the head) to turn away; cf. šïpïraŋna-. šïpïraŋnaaš fidgety, frivolous. šïmïrar- (of grass, grains) to sprout; (of ears) to be or become short. šïmïrtartïr (~ šïmïrartï) short, cropped; šïmïrartïr kes- to cut short, to crop; šïmïrartïr ün- to sprout (of grass, grains). šïmïraš short, low of growth; šïmïraš oht short grass, grass of low growth (in spring); šïmïraš kulaktïg crop-eared; cf. šïmïr. šïn truth; true; šïnïn sögle- to tell the truth. [<CT *čïn] šïnaa valley, river bed. [LM sinaγa] šïnaala- to nomadise in a valley, river bed, to go along the shores of a river bed. šïnap-la indeed, really. šïnar quality, nature. šïnarlïg having quality. šïnčï honest, true; truely. šïnzïk- to trust, to believe in. šïnzïktïr- to certify, to confirm. šïnzïlga certificate, testimony. šïŋ deep hollow road. šïŋgan eht muscles. šïŋgïï kïldïr strictly, severely. šïŋgïra- to ring, to clink, to clank. šïŋgïraaš rinkling; eeldek šïŋgïraaš name of a Tuvan dance. šïŋgïrat- to ring, to clink, to clank. šïp- (šïvar) to cover up, to close, to shut. šïpïraŋna- to look sideways, to avert the eyes; (of the head) to turn away. šïpïraŋnaaš fidgety, frivolous. šïpïraŋnaš- to avert the eyes together; to turn away together. šïpïraŋnat- to turn away the head; bažïŋnï šïpïraŋnatpa don’t turn a way your head. šïpïraŋnayïn- to look sideways all the time, to avert the eyes repeatedly. šïrbay- to strive, to try. šïrïš thicket, shrub. šïvïg cover, lid. šïvïk rod, stick. [<CT *čïbïk] šïy- to draw, to sketch. šïyaan this, so; šïyaan-am introduction of tales this now, so now! šïybak scratch, abrasion. šïybakta- to scratch. šïylaškïn (rain) worm, earth worm. šïžïk- to be annoyed, to become angry. šo dice used in fortune-telling; šo kag- ~ šo sal- to foretell by means of dice. [LM šo ←LT śo] šodaŋ cf. šodugur without tail, tailless. šodugur without tail; cf. šodaŋ. [LM šoduγur] šog irascible. šog: karak šoo sharp eyed, keen eyed, sharpness of the eye, keenness of the eye. šogžan ?mountain. šokar motley, dappled, spotted, multicoloured; pocked, pockmarked; šokar pös multicoloured fabric; šokar ivi dappled deer; šokar bïzaa spotted calf; šokar arïn pockmarked face. [LM čoqor] šokar-pös cotton (print). šol nick name. šolban Venus; star. [<CT *čolpan] šomuk not deep; short. šomuk-küske species of mouse. šon- to burn, to scorch. šooča lock. šooday bag, sack. [LM siγudai] šoolug not very; šoolug ulug eves not very big; šoolug eki eves karandaš-tïr it is a not so good pencil; ol šoolug maŋnay albas apargan it appeared he could not run very well. šoor flute. šoot- to ridicule, to laugh. šoptu nail, tack, peg, pin (wood); cf. kadag. šopulak wooden spoon; cf. omaaš. šorga drain, gutter, wooden pipe for draining fluid, or transporting water. [LM čorγo] šortan pike (fish); cf. šuruš. [<CT *čortan] šoru excellent, fine, very well. šoru fault, failure; bodunuŋ šoruzu-dur it is his/her own fault. šoš fight. šošku- to run slowly, to jog, to trot. [LM šoγsi-] šoškuŋgurla- to jog, to trot. šovaa (~ šovaalaŋ) smart, lively, adroit, brisk; šovaa urug a lively child. [LM čobuγa] šoy cast iron. šoyuškak knockneed, bow-legged, with crooked legs; worn-down. šöl steppe, plain, field. [LM čöl] šölee leave of absence, holiday, furlough; šölee ber- to grant a holiday, leave; šölee al- to take a holiday, leave; šölee dile- to ask for leave of absence; šölee akšazï holiday money. [Oir čölee, LM čilüge(n) Les183a] šöleen calm. šölü- to send into exile. šöömey: biče šöömey little finger. šöy- to stretch out, to reach; xendir šöy- to take a leak, to pee (lit. to stretch hemp). šöyül- to wear out, to become worn out. šöyündü intestine. šudurguu persistent, stubborn. šuduru- to persevere. šuglak blanket, quilt; horse-cloth. šugum line; ruler. [LM siγum] šula- to urge on. šulbus devil, demon. [LM silmu(s)] šulun bot reindeer moss. šuluuda- to execute, to put into effect. [LM siluγudqa-] šuluun quick, prompt, swift. [LM siluγun] šumaš ergek little finger. šuptu all; bügü ... šuptu all; cf. bügü, xamïk. šura- to gallop, to jump. šuruš pike (fish); cf. šortan. šuudak the tradiitonal attire of a (Tuvan) wrestler; cf. sodak. [LM siγudaγ Kow] šuuga- to talk, to chatter; to to gossip; to make a noise. šuurgan storm, hurricane. [LM siγurğa(n)] šuuš- to walk in a row (of a caravan). šuut first, straightway, directly. [LM siγud] šüdüleŋ male or female calf or foal or yak in its third year. [LM sidüleng] šüg- (~ šüür) to conquer, to defeat, to vanquish (e.g. in a wrestling game); to be in the lead; bu udaada kïm šüür irgi? and who is in the lead this time? šülüglel poem. [LM silüglel] šülük verse, poem, poetry; šülük čogaalï poetry. [LM silüg ←Skt śloka] šülükčü poet. [LM silügči] šünčük hip joint; hinge. šüŋme (very) well, all right, o.k.; bo nomnu nomču šüŋme read this book, that's all right; cf. šiŋme. šüŋmek kind of axe with bow-shaped blades. šüšpeŋ slow, hesitant. šüü salpetre. [LM siü ←Ch] šüür filter, strainer, sieve, skimmer. [cf. LM sigü-] šüve good, well. šüžüle- to breathe heavily and noisily. [cf. LM siĵigine-] šüžüŋeyin- to breathe heavily and noisily.