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Etymological Legend
Ch Chinese
CT Common Turkic
Kh Khalkha Mongolian
Khak Khakas
LM Literary Mongolian
LT Literary Tibetan
NE Northeastern Turkic
Rus Russian
Skt Sanskrit
  • šaa only; about, approximately.
  • šaagay thick stitched leather (one of the instruments of corporal punishment and torture in pre-revolutionary Tuva); corporal punishment (torture) by means of thick stitched leather.
  • šaanak Sibirian juniper.
  • šaar far, distant; šaar ïrakta dag köstüp čïtkan in the far distance a mountain was visible.
  • šaar tea dregs. [Kh šaar]
  • šaarar- to shine through, to show through.
  • šaaškak hornet, gadfly.
  • šaaškak scrofula.
  • šaažaŋ bowl, drinking glass. [LM siγaĵang]
  • šag time; ol šagda at that time, long ago; erte šagda in earlier times; šagda-la a long time ago; šaanda far; long time ago; šaandagï šagda in ancient times, a long time ago. [LM čaγ]
  • šag force, power; bar šaa-bile with all one’s might.
  • šagaa New Year celebration (in spring). [LM čaγan]
  • šagalaa- to celebrate the New Year. [LM čaγala-]
  • šagaan-teve a very large species of biting spider.
  • šagar-arï wasp.
  • šagar-oht stinging nettle (Urtica, Urticaceae).
  • šak clock, watch; hour. [LM čaγ]
  • šak exactly, right. [<CT *čak]
  • šak- (šagar) to lighten, to kindle, to make fire; to sting (of insects). [<CT *čak-]
  • šakïr- cf. čakïr- to call, to cry.
  • šakkïla- to clang. [<CT *čakïla-]
  • šala floor. [LM šala]
  • šala a bit, a little, somewhat, slightly; half, lacking, incompletely; šala oožum quietish; šala uzun longish; šala kïl- to leave unfinished; šala küüset- to underfulfil; šala udu- to not get enough sleep; šala čugaala- ?to leave unsaid.
  • šalaŋ back part of the thigh of a horse or cow.
  • šalba lasso; throwing of the lasso.
  • šalbaa put, puddle, swamp. [LM šalbaγa]
  • šaldaŋ bare, half-dressed, without trousers. [LM šaldang]
  • šalïŋ dew; šalïŋ düžüpken it dewed; šalïŋ kurgay bergen the dew dried up; cf. šaŋ. [<NE *čalïm ~ *čalïn]
  • šalïŋ (rate of) pay, wages, salary.
  • šalïpčï shock-worker; šalïpčï brigada shock-brigade.
  • šambïla paradise. [LM šambala ←Skt]
  • šana ski.
  • šanak sled, sleigh.
  • šandïr layer of meat covering the belly of an animal.
  • šanï (male) cousin. [<CT *čïkan]
  • šanïškïlar (male) cousins.
  • šaŋ threshing floor. [←Ch]
  • šaŋ reward. [LM šang ←Ch]
  • šaŋ hoarfrost; cf. šalïŋ.
  • šaŋda bark, rind.
  • šaŋna- to award. [LM šangna-]
  • šaŋnal praise, prize. [LM šangnal]
  • šaŋnal- to become covered with hoarfrost.
  • šap- (šavar) to hit, to beat; to gallop (on horseback); to assault (of a stallion or camel). [<CT *čap-]
  • šapkïn stormy, hasty, busy, quick.
  • šaptï blunt.
  • šaptïkta- to hinder, to obstruct.
  • šara phlegm.
  • šarï bull, ox. [LM šar]
  • šarï- to bind, to tie, to bandage.
  • šartïlaa locust, grasshopper.
  • šarlan aspen.
  • šartay- to swell up, to become swollen.
  • šaš- (šančar) to hit; to stab, to poke; örgen saš- to pitch a stake; öttür šaš- to pierce, to transfix; ooŋ xöree šančïp turgan s/he felt a stabbing pain in the chest. [<CT *sanč-]
  • šat mountain ridge; plateau, table land.
  • šatta- to go over mountain ridges, through plateaus, tablelands.
  • šattïg having mountain ridges, plateaus, tablelands.
  • šavaga sparse shrub, bush; a small fish.
  • šavïlïïr hind saddlegirth. [Mo]
  • šay tea; kara šay strong tea.
  • šayzïrak (kiži) tea-lover, habitual tea-drinker.
  • šažïn religion. [LM šasin ←Skt]
  • šeer mal small livestock: sheep, goats.
  • šeer aarïg venereal disease.
  • šeežek: biče šeežek little finger.
  • šeežile- to learn by rote, to learn by heart. [LM čegeĵile-]
  • šekpen cloth (woolen).
  • šel- to rip, to pull; to scribble.
  • šene- to try.
  • šenek elbow, forearm. [<CT *čekenek]
  • šeŋne wild peony. [cf. LM čene]
  • šergi [šehrgi] grasshopper.
  • šerig soldier; army. [<CT *čerig]
  • šet young larch tree.
  • šever artistic, skillful, exemplary; accurate, tasteful, fine, neat, tidy; šever xoldar skillful hands; šever dargan master smith; šever čuraan ugulza a skilfully drwan pattern; šever xol üžüü neat handwriting.
  • ševergin fine, neat, tidy; ševergin xep fine clothes.
  • ševerle- to clean, to tidy up; öreel ištin ševerle- to do the room, to tidy up the room.
  • ševerlekči one who puts the final touches on.
  • ševerlen- to tidy oneself up.
  • šig direction, orientation. [LM čig]
  • šigbey awl; cf. šivegey.
  • šii theater-play. [LM si]
  • šiit- to judge.
  • šiitpirle- to decide.
  • šiitpirlig decisive.
  • šil glass; bottle. [LM sil ←LT šel]
  • šil-daš mica.
  • šilči- to go through, to go over, to move over.
  • šilčit- to transfer, to convert.
  • šilege ram in its second year. [LM silüge]
  • šilegey saliva, drool (e.g. of small children when teething). [LM silükei]
  • šilen heron, egret, stork.
  • šilgi reddish, ginger, chestnut (horse coat, cows).
  • šili- to select, to choose. [LM sili-]
  • šilire- to rustle.
  • šilireš- to rustle together; to copulate.
  • šim- to close the eyes; cf. šiy-. [<CT *yim-]
  • šimče- to move, to shake.
  • šimčeeškin movement, motion.
  • šimčet- to make move.
  • šime- to adorn, to decorate. [LM čime-]
  • šimeen sound, noise. [LM čimege(n)]
  • šimeŋne- cf. šiveŋne- to be glimpsed fleetingly.
  • šimeš ?onom.
  • šimi milk production.
  • šimir-šimir pit-a-pat.
  • šimire- (of the heart) to miss a beat, to stop beating; čürek šimirep tur my heart stopped beating.
  • šimirt pit-a-pat; šimirt de- of the heart to miss a beat, to go pit-a-pat; čüreem šimirt didi my heart missed a beat.
  • šinčeeči student, learned person, scholar; cf. šinčilekči.
  • šinči appearance. [LM sinĵi]
  • šinči- to research, to learn. [LM sinĵi-]
  • šinčile- to research, to learn. [LM sinĵile-]
  • šinčileeškin research.
  • šinčilekči student, learned person, scholar; cf. šinčeeči. [LM sinĵilegči]
  • šinčilel research. [LM sinĵilel]
  • šinčilig resembling, looks like; ol bögün čoruur šinčilig-dir it looks like he is going today.
  • šinik well-attired, trimmed.
  • šiŋgeet- to master, to acquire, to pick up (culture, writings). [cf. LM singgege-]
  • šiŋme cf. šüŋme (very) well, all right.
  • širbi- to sweep. [LM sirbe-]
  • širbiiš (~ širbiil) broom, besom. [LM sirbegül]
  • širee small table. [LM sirege(n)]
  • širikte- to cut out sods in layers; to make a turf edging around a flowerbed.
  • širtek felt rug, bedding.
  • šiš sharp, pointed; a spit, skewer, point; small stick, sharpened at both ends, which is inserted in the nose of a calf to prevent it from drinking from its mother, or in the nose of bulls and camels in order to lead them; šiš buluŋ sharp angle; šiš bört pointed hat. [<CT *sï:š ~ *si:š]
  • šiškiiš sieve.
  • šište- to splinter, to prick, to pin down; to grill on a skewer; šišteen eht skwered meat.
  • šištey- to be sharp; to jut out, to protrude, to surge, to rise above; šölde čagï šištee bergen tur a pole stood out in the field.
  • šišteyt- to make sharp.
  • šivegey cf. šigbey awl. [cf. LM sibegür]
  • šivegey-dumčuk species of sandpiper.
  • šiveŋne- to be glimpsed fleetingly.
  • šiveš twinkling, inkling, flash; šiveš de- to flash, to swiftly pass by; cf. *čiveš.
  • šivi spruce. [NE]
  • šiviškin spy.
  • šiviškinne- to spy.
  • šiy- cf. šim- to close the eyes.
  • šïda- to be able, can; to bear, to stand. [LM čida-]
  • šïdamïk steadfast, solid, stubborn.
  • šïdaš- to bear with, to stand.
  • šïdïraa chess. [LM sitara ←Ir šatarang]
  • šïga- to point at, to aim.
  • šïgban rod; cf. ïgban.
  • šïgï- to become wet, moist. [cf. CT *čï:]
  • šïgïra- to creak, to make a creaking sound. [<CT *čïkra-]
  • šïgïrat- to let creak, make a creaking sound. [<CT *čïkrat-]
  • šïgït- to moisten.
  • šïgža- to preserve, to keep, to gather.
  • šïïr trampled-down snow.
  • šïïrak strong, powerful.
  • šïk moisture, dampness; meadow; šïk čer meadow. [cf. CT *čï:]
  • šïktïg moist, damp.
  • šïla- to get tired with, to be tired of, to get weary.
  • šïlaazïnnïg tiresome.
  • šïlag tiredness, weariness, fatigue.
  • šïlba willow bark, bark of shrub.
  • šïlgalda examination, trial. [LM silγalta]
  • šïlgaraŋgay outstanding.
  • šïlgat- to be tried, to be examined.
  • šïlïyaa breech band (harness). [←Rus šleja]
  • šïmbay fair, good enough, quite, rather; šïmbay sad rather nice garden; šïmbay palto fairly decent coat; šïmbayïn moŋ! you see! how do you like that!
  • šïmčï- to pinch, to nip, to tweak; xolun šïmčï- to pinch one’s hand.
  • šïmčïm pinch, smidgen; šïmčïm taakpï a pinch of tobacco; šimčïm dus a pinch of salt.
  • šïmïl larva, grub. [LM simuγul]
  • šïmïr short, low of growth; cf. šïmïraš.
  • šïmïraŋna- to look sideways, to avert the eyes, (of the head) to turn away; cf. šïpïraŋna-.
  • šïpïraŋnaaš fidgety, frivolous.
  • šïmïrar- (of grass, grains) to sprout; (of ears) to be or become short.
  • šïmïrtartïr (~ šïmïrartï) short, cropped; šïmïrartïr kes- to cut short, to crop; šïmïrartïr ün- to sprout (of grass, grains).
  • šïmïraš short, low of growth; šïmïraš oht short grass, grass of low growth (in spring); šïmïraš kulaktïg crop-eared; cf. šïmïr.
  • šïn truth; true; šïnïn sögle- to tell the truth. [<CT *čïn]
  • šïnaa valley, river bed. [LM sinaγa]
  • šïnaala- to nomadise in a valley, river bed, to go along the shores of a river bed.
  • šïnap-la indeed, really.
  • šïnar quality, nature.
  • šïnarlïg having quality.
  • šïnčï honest, true; truely.
  • šïnzïk- to trust, to believe in.
  • šïnzïktïr- to certify, to confirm.
  • šïnzïlga certificate, testimony.
  • šïŋ deep hollow road.
  • šïŋgan eht muscles.
  • šïŋgïï kïldïr strictly, severely.
  • šïŋgïra- to ring, to clink, to clank.
  • šïŋgïraaš rinkling; eeldek šïŋgïraaš name of a Tuvan dance.
  • šïŋgïrat- to ring, to clink, to clank.
  • šïp- (šïvar) to cover up, to close, to shut. [<CT *yap-]
  • šïpïraŋna- to look sideways, to avert the eyes; (of the head) to turn away.
  • šïpïraŋnaaš fidgety, frivolous.
  • šïpïraŋnaš- to avert the eyes together; to turn away together.
  • šïpïraŋnat- to turn away the head; bažïŋnï šïpïraŋnatpa don’t turn a way your head.
  • šïpïraŋnayïn- to look sideways all the time, to avert the eyes repeatedly.
  • šïrbay- to strive, to try.
  • šïrïš thicket, shrub.
  • šïvïg cover, lid.
  • šïvïk rod, stick. [<CT *čïbïk]
  • šïy- to draw, to sketch.
  • šïyaan this, so; šïyaan-am introduction of tales this now, so now!
  • šïybak scratch, abrasion.
  • šïybakta- to scratch.
  • šïylaškïn (rain) worm, earth worm.
  • šïžïk- to be annoyed, to become angry.
  • šo dice used in fortune-telling; šo kag- ~ šo sal- to foretell by means of dice. [LM šo ←LT śo]
  • šodaŋ cf. šodugur without tail, tailless.
  • šodugur without tail; cf. šodaŋ. [LM šoduγur]
  • šog irascible.
  • šog: karak šoo sharp eyed, keen eyed, sharpness of the eye, keenness of the eye.
  • šogžan ?mountain.
  • šokar motley, dappled, spotted, multicoloured; pocked, pockmarked; šokar pös multicoloured fabric; šokar ivi dappled deer; šokar bïzaa spotted calf; šokar arïn pockmarked face. [LM čoqor]
  • šokar-pös cotton (print).
  • šol nick name.
  • šolban Venus; star. [<CT *čolpan]
  • šomuk not deep; short.
  • šomuk-küske species of mouse.
  • šon- to burn, to scorch.
  • šooča lock.
  • šooday bag, sack. [LM siγudai]
  • šoolug not very; šoolug ulug eves not very big; šoolug eki eves karandaš-tïr it is a not so good pencil; ol šoolug maŋnay albas apargan it appeared he could not run very well.
  • šoor flute.
  • šoot- to ridicule, to laugh.
  • šoptu nail, tack, peg, pin (wood).
  • šopulak wooden spoon.
  • šorga drain, gutter, wooden pipe for draining fluid, or transporting water. [LM čorγo]
  • šortan pike (fish). [<CT *čortan]
  • šoru excellent, fine, very well.
  • šoru fault, failure; bodunuŋ šoruzu-dur it is his own fault.
  • šoš fight.
  • šošku- to run slowly, to jog, to trot. [LM šoγsi-]
  • šoškuŋgurla- to jog, to trot.
  • šovaa (~ šovaalaŋ) smart, lively, adroit, brisk; šovaa urug a lively child. [LM čobuγa]
  • šoy cast iron.
  • šoyuškak knockneed, bow-legged, with crooked legs; worn-down.
  • šöl steppe, plain, field. [LM čöl]
  • šölee leave of absence, holiday, furlough; šölee ber- to grant a holiday, leave; šölee al- to take a holiday, leave; šölee dile- to ask for leave of absence; šölee akšazï holiday money. [Oir čölee, LM čilüge(n)]
  • šöleen calm.
  • šölü- to send into exile.
  • šöömey: biče šöömey little finger.
  • šöy- to stretch out, to reach; xendir šöy- to take a leak, to pee (lit. to stretch hemp).
  • šöyül- to wear out, to become worn out.
  • šöyündü intestine.
  • šu exclamation to drive up horses, cows; (when said to people) get lost!; šu-de right so! everything is fine!
  • šudurguu persistent, stubborn.
  • šuduru- to persevere.
  • šuglak blanket, quilt; horse-cloth.
  • šugum line; ruler. [LM siγum]
  • šula- to urge on.
  • šulbus devil, demon. [LM silmu(s)]
  • šulun reindeer moss.
  • šuluuda- to execute, to put into effect. [LM siluγudqa-]
  • šuluun quick, prompt, swift. [LM siluγun]
  • šumaš ergek little finger.
  • šuptu all; bügü ... šuptu all.
  • šura- to gallop, to jump.
  • šuruš pike (fish). [cf. Tofa]
  • šuudak the tradiitonal attire of a (Tuvan) wrestler; cf. sodak. [LM siγudaγ]
  • šuuga- to talk, to chatter; to to gossip; to make a noise.
  • šuulgan forum. [LM čiγulγan]
  • šuurgan storm, hurricane. [LM siγurğa(n)]
  • šuuš- to walk in a row (of a caravan).
  • šuut first, straightway, directly. [LM siγud]
  • šüdüleŋ male or female calf or foal or yak in its third year. [LM sidüleng]
  • šüg- (~ šüür) to conquer, to defeat, to vanquish (e.g. in a wrestling game); to be in the lead; bu udaada kïm šüür irgi? and who is in the lead this time?
  • šülüglel poem. [LM silüglel]
  • šülük verse, poem, poetry; šülük čogaalï poetry. [LM silüg ←Skt śloka]
  • šülükčü poet. [LM silügči]
  • šünčük hip joint; hinge.
  • šüŋme (very) well, all right, o.k.; bo nomnu nomču šüŋme read this book, that's all right; cf. šiŋme.
  • šüŋmek kind of axe with bow-shaped blades.
  • šüšpeŋ slow, hesitant.
  • šüü salpetre. [LM siü ←Ch]
  • šüür filter, strainer, sieve, skimmer. [cf. LM sigü-]
  • šüve good, well.
  • šüžüle- to breathe heavily and noisily. [cf. LM siĵigine-]
  • šüžüŋeyin- to breathe heavily and noisily.