Difference between revisions of "A"

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*'''adïr-''' to separate, to release, let go; to unhook, to take off. [<CT ''*adïr-'']
 
*'''adïr-''' to separate, to release, let go; to unhook, to take off. [<CT ''*adïr-'']
 
*'''adïram''' cf. '''adïr''' wait!
 
*'''adïram''' cf. '''adïr''' wait!
*'''adïrïk''' tributary; delta; fork of a river. [<CT '''*adruk''']
+
*'''adïrïk''' tributary; delta; fork of a river. [<CT ''*adruk'']
 
*'''adïrïkta-''' to make smaller, to get small-change.
 
*'''adïrïkta-''' to make smaller, to get small-change.
 
*'''adïrlïg''' branched, having many branches, tributaries, subdivisions; '''xöy adïrlïg ažïl-agïy''' economy with many branches.  
 
*'''adïrlïg''' branched, having many branches, tributaries, subdivisions; '''xöy adïrlïg ažïl-agïy''' economy with many branches.  

Revision as of 22:54, 11 December 2007

Etymological Legend
Ch Chinese
CT Common Turkic
Kh Khalkha Mongolian
Khak Khakas
LM Literary Mongolian
LT Literary Tibetan
NE Northeastern Turkic
Rus Russian
Skt Sanskrit
  • a but, and; a ol ïškaš and likewise; men čoruptayn, a sen artïp kag let me go, but you must stay; bo dalay eves, a xöl-dür this is not a sea but a lake; kïš düšken, a xar am-daa čagbaan winter has set in but it has not snowed yet; bo tool eves, a xerek kïrïnda bolgan čüve-dir this is not a story but something that happened in fact; a čül dize namely, that is; a čül ïnčaš? what exactly? [←Rus a]
  • aa ah!; aa, bo siler ïškažïŋar čül! ah, it is you!; aa, siler čanïp kelgen ïškaš čül siler! ah, so you have returned apparently!; aa, čüü didir sen? ah, what are you saying?
  • aa (emphatic particle); bo čüveniŋ čiktiin aa! this is an ashtonishing thing!; ekizin aa! how good! čüge ïïttavayn-dïr sen aa? why is it you are keeping mum?
  • aa biestings, colostrum; inek aazï cow biestings.
  • aadam (~ aadama) fiery (of horses).
  • aadamna- of horses to be obstinate, refractory, restive, fiery; to gambol, to frisk.
  • aadaŋ piece of leather or textile for wrapping tea or tobacco.
  • aadaŋna- to wrap in a wrapping for tea or tobacco.
  • aadïg rocking, swinging; rocking chair.
  • aadïïškïn rocking, swinging.
  • aagayla- to persuade, to talk into.
  • aagaylat- to let persuade, to let talk into.
  • aak strength of taste; šaynïŋ aagï the strong taste of tea; xandïnïŋ aagï the strong taste of nastoyka liqueur. [←Kh aag, LM aγa]
  • aak whim, caprice.
  • aak consequence, after-effects; sook aagï (~ sooktuŋ aagï) the after-effects of cold; bögün sook-tur, xar aagïndan ïnčap tur boor it is cold today, evidently as a consequence of the snow.
  • aak rebuke, reproach.
  • aak- (of a sick child) to be whimsical, to complain.
  • aak-baak (~ aak-maak): aak-maak četpe very quick, in a moment; aak-baak-daa četpes quickly, in a flash.
  • aaksïg of strong taste, tasty; aaksïg šay strong tea.
  • aaksït- to make strong (tea); šaynï aaksïdïr xayïndïr- to brew strong tea.
  • aakta- to reproach. [LM ayaγla-]
  • aaktal- (of a sick child) to complain.
  • aaktïg fickle, capricious (of a sick child).
  • aal settlement, encampment, village, house; aal kodanï village grounds; olar aalïnda they are at home; aal malï domestic animals; aal išti inhabitant of a house, village; member of the family; ulug aal prison, jail. [<CT *a:gïl, cf. LM ail]
  • aal (term of address) boy, chap; friend, comrade; kandïg (~ kančaar) čurttap tur sen, aal? how is life, chap?
  • aal-oran place of residence, home; aal-oran čok homeless.
  • aala- to cry (of a child), to shout, to howl (of animals).
  • aalčï guest; xündülüg aalčï honoured guest; aalčïlar bažïŋï guest house, hotel. [LM ayilči(n)]
  • aalda- to visit; ködeede törelderimge aaldap čoraan men I visited my relatives in town; adïg aalda- to hunt bears (lit. to visit the bear).
  • aaldaš- to visit one another.
  • aaldat- to let visit, to invite.
  • aamay stupid, confused; scatter-brain; day-dreamer. [Tofa aamay]
  • aamaylan- to loiter, to linger.
  • aan later; aan kelir men I will come later on. [Tofa aan]
  • aan (emphatic particle) kïmïl ol? oglum aan who is that? this now is my son; bo nomnu aan, nomčudun be? as for this book, have you read it? [Tofa aan]
  • aanakayïn (~ aanaytan ~ anaytkan) unexpectedly; moreover; again; aanaytan, xar baza čaapkan it snowed inopportunely.
  • aaŋayïn- to sob, to howl, to bawl.
  • aap-saap several, small, petty; aap-saap ažïldar odd jobs; aap-saap čüve small things.
  • aar heavy; difficult, severe; expensive; weight, burdon; aar čühk heavy load; aar aarïg severe illness; aar ažïl heavy work, hard labour; šoodaynïŋ aarï the weight of the bag. [<CT *agïr]
  • aar oh!; seni aar! oh, you!
  • aar < alïr takes, taking; cf. al- to take.
  • aar other side; aar iy northern slope of a mountain where the sun does not shine; Möŋgün Tayganïŋ aar iyi the northern slope of Mount Möŋgün.
  • aar-berge severe, heavy; aar-berge amïdïral harsh life; aar-berge oruk heavy journey.
  • aar-saar several, small, routine; bažïŋnïŋ aar-saar septelgezi routine repairs on the house; aar-saar xerekter small affairs.
  • aarak rather; sïmïranï aarak rather whisperingly; xülümzürüy aarak smiling a bit.
  • aaray well; küžür erni aaray well, what a man!
  • aarï- to become ill, to suffer from a disease, to be hurting; to be fan of; malyariyadan aarï- to suffer from malaria; ool aarïp tur his/her son is ill; bažïm aarïp tur I have a headache; kayï komanda deeš aarïïr siler? what team are you fan of?; ehdi aarï- of labour pains to set in; sagïš aarï- to suffer from a mental illness. [<CT *agrï-]
  • aarï-aržï- to be ill.
  • aarïg illness, disease, pain; ill, sick; baš aarïï headache; diš aarïï tooth ache; sagïš aarïï mental illness; aar aarïg severe disease; xooču aarïg chronic disease; xaldavïrlïg aarïg infectious disease; aarïg kiži ill person, patient; tenek aarïg lunatic; aarïglarnï baš udur boldurbas dugayïnda ažïl profilactic work. [<CT *agïrïg]
  • aarïgan ailing, sickly.
  • aarïganna- to be sickly, to be often ill.
  • aarïg-aržïk diseases, ilnesses.
  • aarïg-aržïktïg suffering from diseases, ilnesses.
  • aarïg-čovulaŋ pangs, (serious) disease.
  • aarïgla- (of plants) to be diseased; bo ünüš aarïglay bergen this plant is diseased.
  • aarïglïg ill, sick; painful, sore; aarïglïg urug sick child; aarïglïg aytïrïg painful subject. [<CT *agïrïglïg]
  • aarïgzï- to be ill, unwell, indisposed.
  • aarïgzïn- to feel not healthy, ill; men aarïgzïnïp tur men I am not feeling well.
  • aarïïčal sickly.
  • aarïkčï fan, supporter.
  • aarïkšï pain, illness.
  • aarïkšïlïg painful, hurting.
  • aarïksa- to ache a little, on and off, now and then; baš aarïksap tur I am having a bit of a headache.
  • aarïšïnčak squeamish.
  • aaršïlïg painful, hurting; arïnïŋ šagarï aaršïlïg a bee sting is painful; meŋee aaršïlïg-dïr I feel pain, it hurts me.
  • aart- to make ill.
  • aarta- to weigh, to be heavy; čahstan ton aartay bergen the garment became heavy from the rain; bažïm aartay bergen my head became heavy; adaa aarta- to become pregnant.
  • aarta- to sip; šay aarta- to sip from the tea.
  • aartat- to make heavy.
  • aartïk burden, obstacle.
  • aartïkta- to consider as a burden, obstacle.
  • aarzïn- to feel the weight of; to feel ill, to be failing.
  • aarzïnčak squeamish.
  • aarzïndïr- to cause harm, to hurt.
  • aaržï cheese curd, strained sediment of sour milk; kurgag aaržï dried curds; öl aaržï moist curds. [←Kh aarc, LM aγarča(n)]
  • aaržï-čökpek diary products.
  • aaržï-xoytpak food products prepared from sour milk.
  • aaržïla- to prepare cheese curds.
  • aaržïlïg containing cheese curds.
  • aas mouth; mouth of a river; opening; aksï his/her/its mouth; aas išti oral cavity; adïg aksï bear’s mouth, jaws; xem aksï estuary; boo aksï muzzle of a gun; ottug dag aksï crater of a vulcano; aas čugaa spoken language; ulustuŋ aas čogaalï folklore, folk arts; aas-bile oral, by mouth; aas ayïïlï wicked or spiteful tongue; bak aas gossip. [<CT *agïz]
  • aas lid; xönek aksï the lid of a teapot.
  • aas-dïl argument, quarrel, scandal; aas-dïl kïl- to argue, to quarrel.
  • aas-dïldïg quarrelsome.
  • aas-kežik good fate, luck, happiness.
  • aas-kežiktig lucky.
  • aaspïrak rude, sharp-tongued.
  • aastïg quarrelsome.
  • aat- to dandle, to rock, to swing, to sway; čaš urugnu aat- to rock the baby.
  • aatkïïš hook on which to suspend the cradle; swings; seesaws.
  • aatkïïšta- to dandle, to rock, to swing, to sway.
  • aattïn- to swing; aatkïïška aattïn- to swing on the swings.
  • aattïnčak hanging, pendant; aattïnčak kavay hanging cradle.
  • aattïnïš- to swing together.
  • aay order; direction; way, manner; essence, main point, gist, sense, purport; state, condition, situation; kandïg-daa aay čok without any order, disorderly, chaotic; xattïŋ aayï direction of the wind; šimčeeškinniŋ aayï direction of a movement; čugaanïŋ aayï the character of the conversation; xerektiŋ aayï kandïgïl? how is the state of affairs?; čüveniŋ aayï the gist of the thing; aytïrïgnïŋ aayï the purport of the question; aay bar it makes sense; aayïn tïp- to comprehend, to grasp, to gain an understanding of; to find a solution, way out; aayï tïvïlbas incredible, incomprehensible; ažïldïŋ aayïn tïvar xerek it is necessary to understand the state of affairs; aayï-bile in the manner of; oruk aayï-bile in passing, incidentally; ağïm aayï-bile with the stream, current; klasstar aayï-bile by class; öŋ aayï-bile by colour; deŋzi aayï-bile by weight; alfavit aayï-bile in alphabetical order; ažïl aayï-bile by work; ööreen aayï-bile with pleasure; xoradaan aayï-bile out of spite; čugaalaan aayï-bile as a manner of speaking, in one’s opinion; maŋnaan aayï-bile with a running jump; öžešken aayï-bile out of stubbornness; aay xol right hand; aay salgïn favourable wind, fair wind; ahttïŋ aay čarïï the side on which one usually mounts the horse; aay oktalga positive charge; aayïnga kir- ~ aayïn ertpe- to agree, to reach an agreement; kiži aayïnga kirbe- to be not easy to manage; kiži aayïndan ertpe- to be obedient, dutiful. [Tofa aay]
  • aay-baš state, situation; order; čünüŋ aay-bažïn tïppas s/he does not understand the state of it; aay-baš čok in disorder; aay-baš čok šimčeeškin movement without order; aay-baš čok čoruk mess, jumble; nomnar aay-baš čok čïtkïlaan the books were lying about scattered; aay-bažï tïvïlbas chaotic.
  • aay-dedir back and forth.
  • aayla- to put in order; to arrange, to settle; to remove, to dispose of; bažïŋ ištin aayla- to tidy up the house.
  • aaylaaškïn the act of putting into order, settling, arrangement.
  • aaylan- to gather, to prepare (for the road); to come to, to regain consciousness; to put an end to one’s life, to commit suicide.
  • aaylandïr- to put in order, to arrange.
  • aaylandïrïïškin the act of putting into order, settling, arangement; direction.
  • aaylaš- to put in order together, to arange together; to be lucky, successful; aaylažïp ber- to help arrange; aŋnaarïmga meŋee aylažïp tur I was lucky at my hunting.
  • aaylaškak lucky, succesful; aaylaškak kiži lucky person.
  • aaylaštïr- to let put in order together.
  • aaylattïn- to prepare (for the road); to come to.
  • aaylïg orderly; feasible; čüve aaylïg boor the thing must be orderly; aaylïg ažïl feasable work; aaylïg xerek feasable matter; kandïg aaylïg? what, what kind of?; kandïg aaylïg ažïlïl? what kind of the work? kandïg aaylïg kižil? what kind of the person?
  • aaylïg very; senden aaylïg diledim be I vehemently beg of you.
  • aaza- to promise; bir-tee aazaan soonda küüse-dir once promised one must keep one’s word.
  • aazaaškïn promise; kurug aazaaškïn empty promise; bïžïg aazaaškïnnï ber- to give a solemn promise; aazaaškïnïn sal- to keep one’s promise.
  • aazakčï one who made a promise.
  • aazaš- to promise one another.
  • aazat- to open one’s mouth; aazadïpkan dïŋnap olur- to listen with one’s mouth open.
  • aazatpay (~ aazatpayak) scatter-brain; day-dreamer; slovenly individual; aazatpay čoruk heedlessness.
  • aazatpaylan- to be a scatter-brain, day-dreamer, slovenly individual.
  • aazattïr- to let open one’s mouth.
  • aažï manner, character. [LM aγasi]
  • aažï-čaŋ character, disposition, temper; kadïg aažï-čaŋ stern behaviour; čazïk-čaagay aažï-čaŋ open, good character; aažï-čaŋï eki (bak) kiži a person of good (bad) character; eeldek aažï-čaŋga öören- to learn civility, politeness. [LM aγasi-ĵaŋ]
  • aažï-čaŋnïg of a certain disposition; eldep aažï-čaŋnïg kiži person of queer character.
  • aažïla- to behave; eki (bak) aažïla- to behave kind (unkind), to treat well (bad); kara turazïnda aažïla- to behave wilfully. [LM aγasila-]
  • aažïlaaškïn act, deed; eki aažïlaaškïn good deed; ak setkildig aažïlaaškïn honest deed.
  • aažïlal act, deed.
  • aažïlan- to behave oneself; eki ažïlan- to behave oneself well.
  • aažïlat- to let or make behave.
  • aažïlïg of a certain disposition.
  • aažok very, greatly, terrible, awful, extraordinary; šölde ulus aažok xöy there are a great many people on the grounds; kolxoztarnïŋ malï aažok ösken the livestock of the kolxoz's have grown a great deal; avam aažok ööreen mother was very happy; aažok ulug very big, huge, gigantic, enormous; ačam aažok ulug adïg dayalap kaan my father killed an enormous bear.
  • ača father.
  • ačay daddy.
  • ačazïn- to regard as a father.
  • ačï [ahčï] grace, favour, good deed. [LM ači]
  • ačïlïğ beneficial.
  • ačïmak [ahčïmak] quiver. [LM ačimaγ]
  • ada [ahda] father; soŋgu ada stepfather. [<CT *ata]
  • ada- to be called, to be named; to dictate (a text); to tell, to speak, to pronounce; meni Kara-kïs dep adaar they call me Kara-kïs; tekstini ada- to dictate the text; šïn ada- to speak the truth; toda ada- to speak clearly, to pronounce clearly. [<CT *a:ta-]
  • ada-čurt fatherland, motherland, homeland.
  • ada-čurttaš compatriot.
  • ada-iye parents.
  • ada-ögbe ancestors.
  • ada-töögü the old days, the old times; ada-töögü dužunda in the old days, formerly.
  • adaan [ahdaan] hate; revenge. [LM ataγa(n)]
  • adaan-öžeennig contest, competition (e.g. in shooting).
  • adaandagï (being) below, following; adaandagï čižekter the examples below.
  • adaannïg hostile; exitable, reckless; adaannïg dayzïn sworn enemy; adaannïg oyun reckless game; adaannïg demisel competition.
  • adaarga- to envy. [LM antaγarka-]
  • adaargak envious; jealous. [LM ataγarqaγ]
  • adaargal envy.
  • adaargančïg enviable.
  • adagaš pole; telegraf adagaštarï telegraph poles.
  • adak underside, the part below; ežik adaa the underside of the door; xem adaa the lower reaches of a river; adaanga to the underside, below, underneath; adaanda at the underside, underneath; adaandan from underneath, from below; stol adaanda underneath the table; ahttar ïyaš adaanda turgan the horses were standing under the tree; adaktïŋ soonda eventually, finally, at last; [LM adaγ]
  • adakkï under, nether, being underneath; felt to cover the walls of the yurt; adakkï kaht ground floor.
  • adalïškïlar (~ adaškïlar) father and child(ren).
  • adan camel of burden (castrated). [LM ata(n)]
  • adaska skin on which to sleep; a good-for-nothing. [LM adasqa]
  • adaš playful address of girls towards youths.
  • adattïn- to be called.
  • adïg bear. [<CT *adïg]
  • adïg [ahdïg] shot, throw.
  • adïg-kiriži ivy.
  • adïgžï bowman, shooter, marksman, hunter.
  • adïguuzun animal, beast. [LM adaγusun]
  • adïïrga- to be conceited, presumptuous.
  • adïïrgak conceited, presumptuous, affected, pompous, vain.
  • adïïškïn shot, stroke, blow; xün adïïškïnï sunstroke.
  • adïm bowshot (as a unit of length).
  • adïr branch, fork, subdivision; oruk adïrï fork in the road.
  • adïr wait a moment! coming! stop!
  • adïr-kuduruk wood-louse.
  • adïr- to separate, to release, let go; to unhook, to take off. [<CT *adïr-]
  • adïram cf. adïr wait!
  • adïrïk tributary; delta; fork of a river. [<CT *adruk]
  • adïrïkta- to make smaller, to get small-change.
  • adïrlïg branched, having many branches, tributaries, subdivisions; xöy adïrlïg ažïl-agïy economy with many branches.
  • adïš palm of the hand; handful. [<CT *aduč]
  • adïš [ahdïš] the shooting, a shot.
  • adïšta- to take a handful.
  • agaar air; weather; money. [←Kh agaar, LM agar]
  • agaarla- to go for a walk.
  • aganak [ahganak] white grouse.
  • agar wool of the second (autumnal) shearing of a sheep. [←Kh axar, LM aqur]
  • agar- to become white, to turn grey, to grow pale; to be innocent; bažï agara bergen his/her head has turned grey. [<CT *a:kar-]
  • agarla- to shear in autumn; xoy agarla- to shear sheep in autumn. [LM aqurla-]
  • agart- to make white. [<CT *a:kart-]
  • agban cf. ïgban dead branch.
  • agï species of wormwood (Artemesia, Compositae). [LM agi]
  • agïïčal flowing, streaming.
  • agïïnak cf. aganak white grouse.
  • agïïškïn the act of streaming, flowing.
  • agïm a current, a stream, a flow. [<CT *akïm]
  • agïr- to accompany a shaman, imitating his calling out loud.
  • agïs- (aksïr) to strain, to filter, to let flow, to turn on (the water).
  • agla- to hunt game using a battue, ambush.