Difference between revisions of "A"

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*'''amïlan-''' to be alive, to keep body and soul together, to subsist.  
 
*'''amïlan-''' to be alive, to keep body and soul together, to subsist.  
 
*'''amïlïg''' alive, living, animate, organic; '''amïlïg amïtan''' living creature; '''amïlïg boydus''' living nature, organic nature.
 
*'''amïlïg''' alive, living, animate, organic; '''amïlïg amïtan''' living creature; '''amïlïg boydus''' living nature, organic nature.
*'''amïr''' quiet, calm, placid; easy, not difficult; '''amïr-la-dïr be!''' peace onto you! '''amïr ažïl-dïr''' it is easy work; '''amïr eves''' not easy; '''amïr kiži''' placid person, easy-going person. [<CT ''*amur'', LM ''amur'']
+
*'''amïr''' quiet, calm, placid; easy, not difficult; '''amïr-la-dïr be!''' peace onto you! '''amïr ažïl-dïr''' it is easy work; '''amïr eves''' not easy; '''amïr kiži''' placid person, easy-going person. [LM ''amur'']
*'''amïr-mendi''' health, well-being; '''amïr-mendi aytïr-''' to wish good health, to greet; '''amïr-mendi soluš-''' to exchange greetings. [LM ''amir-mendü'']
+
*'''amïr-mendi''' health, well-being; '''amïr-mendi aytïr-''' to wish good health, to greet; '''amïr-mendi soluš-''' to exchange greetings; '''amïr-mendiŋni aytïrdïm''' how are you doing? (lit. I have asked your health); '''amïr-mendi čok''' without greeting, impolite, rude. [LM ''amir-mendü'']
 
*'''amïra-''' to rest, to console oneself, to take comfort; to rejoice, to enjoy, to be glad; '''sen kelgeniŋge aažok amïradïm''' I am very glad you have come. [LM ''amura-'']
 
*'''amïra-''' to rest, to console oneself, to take comfort; to rejoice, to enjoy, to be glad; '''sen kelgeniŋge aažok amïradïm''' I am very glad you have come. [LM ''amura-'']
 
*'''amïrak''' dear, beloved. [LM ''amuraγ'']
 
*'''amïrak''' dear, beloved. [LM ''amuraγ'']
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*'''amïtan''' creature, animal; these all, those here, bunch; '''kandaay amïtan sen?''' what kind of creature are you?; '''azïral amïtannar''' domestic livestock; '''amïtannar aymaa''' the realm of animals; '''amïtan nomnarïŋ kančaar sen?''' what will you do with all those books of yours? [LM ''amitan'']
 
*'''amïtan''' creature, animal; these all, those here, bunch; '''kandaay amïtan sen?''' what kind of creature are you?; '''azïral amïtannar''' domestic livestock; '''amïtannar aymaa''' the realm of animals; '''amïtan nomnarïŋ kančaar sen?''' what will you do with all those books of yours? [LM ''amitan'']
 
*'''amza-''' to taste. [LM ''amsa-'']
 
*'''amza-''' to taste. [LM ''amsa-'']
 +
*'''ana''' well, then; '''ana at bolgan''' how terrible!
 +
*'''anaa''' usual, ordinary, simple; okay, fine, well, just so; '''anaa, anaa''' okay okay, I got the point, hm; '''anaa karandažïŋ bar be?''' do you have an ordinary pencil?; '''anaa-la''' simply, just, without ceremony; '''bis anaa-la parkže kïlaštap čorduvus''' we just walked to the park (for no particular reason); '''anaa eves''' unusual, uncommon, extraordinary, special, not just so; '''sen anaa eves beer čedip keldiŋ''' you came here for a reason; '''anaa eves ulus dur siler, onu utpaŋar''' you are special people, don’t forget it; '''anaa prosto''' just because, just so; '''sen čüü deeš činči bile oškažïp turgan sen? anaa prosto''' why is it you and Pearl were kissing? just because; '''anaada''' usually.
 +
*'''anaar''' cf. '''ïnaar''' to there, thither.
 +
*'''anay''' ['''ahnay'''] kid, lamb; '''čaš anay''' young kid; '''ivi anay''' fawn.
 +
*'''anay-kara''' darling, sweetie; '''anay-kara čažïndan''' from a tender age.
 +
*'''anayla-''' of a goat to kid, of a deer to give birth to a fawn.
 +
*'''anča''' cf. '''ïnča''' so much, this much.
 +
*'''anča-''' cf. '''ïnča-''' to do thus.
 +
*'''ančïg''' boring, irksome, bothersome, unpleasant, disagreeable, annoying; ungainly, clumsy; '''ančïg kiži''' nuisance, bore; '''ančïg kïlïn-''' to pester, to bother, to bore; to tease, to excite; '''ančïg čugaa''' unpleasant talk.
 +
*'''ančïgzïn-''' to become angry
 +
*'''ančïgzïndïr-''' to make angry, to annoy.
 +
*'''anda''' cf. '''ïnda''' at him, her; there. [<CT ''*anda'' ~ ''*anta'']
 +
*'''andag''' cf. '''ïndag''' like that, thus. [<CT ''*andag'' ~ ''*antag'']
 +
*'''andazïn''' plow. [←Kh ''andis(an)'', LM ''anĵisu(n)'']
 +
*'''anïyak''' ['''ahnïyak'''] young; '''anïyaamda''' in my youth; '''anïyaaŋdan''' from the time of your youth; '''anïyaktar''' youth, the young people; '''sovyet anïyaktar''' the Soviet youth; '''anïyaktar organizaciyazï''' youth organisation.
 +
*'''ava''' mother.
 +
*'''avakïm''' mommy.
 +
*'''avaangïr''' ['''ahvaangïr'''] adroit, dexterous, deft, able, skillful; prompt, swift; smart, nimble, quick-fingered.
 +
*'''avaansa''' promotion. [←Rus ''avans'']
 +
*'''avagay''' sir, madam. [LM ''abaqai'']
 +
*'''aval''' (< '''ap al''') take it.
 +
*'''avalïškï(lar)''' (~ '''avaškï(lar)''') mother and child(ren).
 +
*'''avay''' mommy, mum (term of address); '''avayïm''' mother! (exclamation of fear).
 +
*'''avïra''' cf. '''azïra''' heavens!
 +
*'''avïra-azïra''' goodness! heavens!
 +
*'''avïral''' salvation, deliverance; protection; mercy; help; amnesty; '''seeŋ avïralïŋ-bile''', '''seeŋ avïralïŋda''' thanks to you, owing to you. [LM ''abural'']
 +
*'''avïralda-''' to ask for, to beg; to take care of, to spare, to protect.
 +
*'''avïraldïg''' beneficial, beneficient, offering help, protective; merciful; '''avïraldïg alday-taŋdïm''' my merciful Altay taiga; '''avïraldïg kiži''' person helping others.
 +
*'''avïrar-''' (~ '''avïraŋna-''') to be or become dishevelled, tousled, tattered.
 +
*'''avïraš''' dishevelled, tattered, tousled, shaggy; '''avïraš baš dügü''' tousled hair.
 +
*'''avïrga''' bugle for luring maral deer.
 +
*'''avïrgan''' ['''ahvïrgan'''] flying squirrel.
 +
*'''avïrganna-''' to hunt flying squirrels.
 +
*'''avïyaas''' hypocrisy, slyness, pretence, sham. [LM ''abiyas'']
 +
*'''avïyaasta-''' to be hypocritical, cunning, to pretend, to feign.
 +
*'''avïyaastan-''' to pretend, to feign; '''čüge avïyaastanïr sen?''' why are you pretending?
 +
*'''avïyaastïg''' hypocritical, sly, insinuating.
 +
*'''avïyaazïn''' cf. '''avïyaas''' hypocrisy, slyness, pretence, sham.
 +
*'''avïyaazïnnan-''' cf. '''avïyaasta-''' to be hypocritical, cunning, to pretend, to feign.

Revision as of 21:38, 14 December 2007

Etymological Legend
Ch Chinese
CT Common Turkic
Kh Khalkha Mongolian
Khak Khakas
LM Literary Mongolian
LT Literary Tibetan
NE Northeastern Turkic
Rus Russian
Skt Sanskrit
  • a but, and; a ol ïškaš and likewise; men čoruptayn, a sen artïp kag let me go, but you must stay; bo dalay eves, a xöl-dür this is not a sea but a lake; kïš düšken, a xar am-daa čagbaan winter has set in but it has not snowed yet; bo tool eves, a xerek kïrïnda bolgan čüve-dir this is not a story but something that happened in fact; a čül dize namely, that is; a čül ïnčaš? what exactly? [←Rus a]
  • aa ah!; aa, bo siler ïškažïŋar čül! ah, it is you!; aa, siler čanïp kelgen ïškaš čül siler! ah, so you have returned apparently!; aa, čüü didir sen? ah, what are you saying?
  • aa (emphatic particle); bo čüveniŋ čiktiin aa! this is an ashtonishing thing!; ekizin aa! how good! čüge ïïttavayn-dïr sen aa? why is it you are keeping mum?
  • aa biestings, colostrum; inek aazï cow biestings.
  • aadam (~ aadama) fiery (of horses).
  • aadamna- of horses to be obstinate, refractory, restive, fiery; to gambol, to frisk.
  • aadaŋ piece of leather or textile for wrapping tea or tobacco.
  • aadaŋna- to wrap in a wrapping for tea or tobacco.
  • aadïg rocking, swinging; rocking chair.
  • aadïïškïn rocking, swinging.
  • aagayla- to persuade, to talk into.
  • aagaylat- to let persuade, to let talk into.
  • aak strength of taste; šaynïŋ aagï the strong taste of tea; xandïnïŋ aagï the strong taste of nastoyka liqueur. [←Kh aag, LM aγa]
  • aak whim, caprice.
  • aak consequence, after-effects; sook aagï (~ sooktuŋ aagï) the after-effects of cold; bögün sook-tur, xar aagïndan ïnčap tur boor it is cold today, evidently as a consequence of the snow.
  • aak rebuke, reproach.
  • aak- (of a sick child) to be whimsical, to complain.
  • aak-baak (~ aak-maak): aak-maak četpe very quick, in a moment; aak-baak-daa četpes quickly, in a flash.
  • aaksïg of strong taste, tasty; aaksïg šay strong tea.
  • aaksït- to make strong (tea); šaynï aaksïdïr xayïndïr- to brew strong tea.
  • aakta- to reproach. [LM ayaγla-]
  • aaktal- (of a sick child) to complain.
  • aaktïg fickle, capricious (of a sick child).
  • aal settlement, encampment, village, house; aal kodanï village grounds; olar aalïnda they are at home; aal malï domestic animals; aal išti inhabitant of a house, village; member of the family; ulug aal prison, jail. [<CT *a:gïl, cf. LM ail]
  • aal (term of address) boy, chap; friend, comrade; kandïg (~ kančaar) čurttap tur sen, aal? how is life, chap?
  • aal-oran place of residence, home; aal-oran čok homeless.
  • aala- to cry (of a child), to shout, to howl (of animals).
  • aalčï guest; xündülüg aalčï honoured guest; aalčïlar bažïŋï guest house, hotel. [LM ayilči(n)]
  • aalda- to visit; ködeede törelderimge aaldap čoraan men I visited my relatives in town; adïg aalda- to hunt bears (lit. to visit the bear).
  • aaldaš- to visit one another.
  • aaldat- to let visit, to invite.
  • aamay stupid, confused; scatter-brain; day-dreamer. [Tofa aamay]
  • aamaylan- to loiter, to linger.
  • aan later; aan kelir men I will come later on. [Tofa aan]
  • aan (emphatic particle) kïmïl ol? oglum aan who is that? this now is my son; bo nomnu aan, nomčudun be? as for this book, have you read it? [Tofa aan]
  • aanakayïn (~ aanaytan ~ anaytkan) unexpectedly; moreover; again; aanaytan, xar baza čaapkan it snowed inopportunely.
  • aaŋayïn- to sob, to howl, to bawl.
  • aap-saap several, small, petty; aap-saap ažïldar odd jobs; aap-saap čüve small things.
  • aar heavy; difficult, severe; expensive; weight, burdon; aar čühk heavy load; aar aarïg severe illness; aar ažïl heavy work, hard labour; šoodaynïŋ aarï the weight of the bag. [<CT *agïr]
  • aar oh!; seni aar! oh, you!
  • aar < alïr takes, taking; cf. al- to take.
  • aar other side; aar iy northern slope of a mountain where the sun does not shine; Möŋgün Tayganïŋ aar iyi the northern slope of Mount Möŋgün.
  • aar-berge severe, heavy; aar-berge amïdïral harsh life; aar-berge oruk heavy journey.
  • aar-saar several, small, routine; bažïŋnïŋ aar-saar septelgezi routine repairs on the house; aar-saar xerekter small affairs.
  • aarak rather; sïmïranï aarak rather whisperingly; xülümzürüy aarak smiling a bit.
  • aaray well; küžür erni aaray well, what a man!
  • aarï- to become ill, to suffer from a disease, to be hurting; to be fan of; malyariyadan aarï- to suffer from malaria; ool aarïp tur his/her son is ill; bažïm aarïp tur I have a headache; kayï komanda deeš aarïïr siler? what team are you fan of?; ehdi aarï- of labour pains to set in; sagïš aarï- to suffer from a mental illness. [<CT *agrï-]
  • aarï-aržï- to be ill.
  • aarïg illness, disease, pain; ill, sick; baš aarïï headache; diš aarïï tooth ache; sagïš aarïï mental illness; aar aarïg severe disease; xooču aarïg chronic disease; xaldavïrlïg aarïg infectious disease; aarïg kiži ill person, patient; tenek aarïg lunatic; aarïglarnï baš udur boldurbas dugayïnda ažïl profilactic work. [<CT *agïrïg]
  • aarïgan ailing, sickly.
  • aarïganna- to be sickly, to be often ill.
  • aarïg-aržïk diseases, ilnesses.
  • aarïg-aržïktïg suffering from diseases, ilnesses.
  • aarïg-čovulaŋ pangs, (serious) disease.
  • aarïgla- (of plants) to be diseased; bo ünüš aarïglay bergen this plant is diseased.
  • aarïglïg ill, sick; painful, sore; aarïglïg urug sick child; aarïglïg aytïrïg painful subject. [<CT *agïrïglïg]
  • aarïgzï- to be ill, unwell, indisposed.
  • aarïgzïn- to feel not healthy, ill; men aarïgzïnïp tur men I am not feeling well.
  • aarïïčal sickly.
  • aarïkčï fan, supporter.
  • aarïkšï pain, illness.
  • aarïkšïlïg painful, hurting.
  • aarïksa- to ache a little, on and off, now and then; baš aarïksap tur I am having a bit of a headache.
  • aarïšïnčak squeamish.
  • aaršïlïg painful, hurting; arïnïŋ šagarï aaršïlïg a bee sting is painful; meŋee aaršïlïg-dïr I feel pain, it hurts me.
  • aart- to make ill.
  • aarta- to weigh, to be heavy; čahstan ton aartay bergen the garment became heavy from the rain; bažïm aartay bergen my head became heavy; adaa aarta- to become pregnant.
  • aarta- to sip; šay aarta- to sip from the tea.
  • aartat- to make heavy.
  • aartïk burden, obstacle.
  • aartïkta- to consider as a burden, obstacle.
  • aarzïn- to feel the weight of; to feel ill, to be failing.
  • aarzïnčak squeamish.
  • aarzïndïr- to cause harm, to hurt.
  • aaržï cheese curd, strained sediment of sour milk; kurgag aaržï dried curds; öl aaržï moist curds. [←Kh aarc, LM aγarča(n)]
  • aaržï-čökpek diary products.
  • aaržï-xoytpak food products prepared from sour milk.
  • aaržïla- to prepare cheese curds.
  • aaržïlïg containing cheese curds.
  • aas mouth; mouth of a river; opening; aksï his/her/its mouth; aas išti oral cavity; adïg aksï bear’s mouth, jaws; xem aksï estuary; boo aksï muzzle of a gun; ottug dag aksï crater of a vulcano; aas čugaa spoken language; ulustuŋ aas čogaalï folklore, folk arts; aas-bile oral, by mouth; aas ayïïlï wicked or spiteful tongue; bak aas gossip. [<CT *agïz]
  • aas lid; xönek aksï the lid of a teapot.
  • aas-dïl argument, quarrel, scandal; aas-dïl kïl- to argue, to quarrel.
  • aas-dïldïg quarrelsome.
  • aas-kežik good fate, luck, happiness.
  • aas-kežiktig lucky.
  • aaspïrak rude, sharp-tongued.
  • aastïg quarrelsome.
  • aat- to dandle, to rock, to swing, to sway; čaš urugnu aat- to rock the baby.
  • aatkïïš hook on which to suspend the cradle; swings; seesaws.
  • aatkïïšta- to dandle, to rock, to swing, to sway.
  • aattïn- to swing; aatkïïška aattïn- to swing on the swings.
  • aattïnčak hanging, pendant; aattïnčak kavay hanging cradle.
  • aattïnïš- to swing together.
  • aay order; direction; way, manner; essence, main point, gist, sense, purport; state, condition, situation; kandïg-daa aay čok without any order, disorderly, chaotic; xattïŋ aayï direction of the wind; šimčeeškinniŋ aayï direction of a movement; čugaanïŋ aayï the character of the conversation; xerektiŋ aayï kandïgïl? how is the state of affairs?; čüveniŋ aayï the gist of the thing; aytïrïgnïŋ aayï the purport of the question; aay bar it makes sense; aayïn tïp- to comprehend, to grasp, to gain an understanding of; to find a solution, way out; aayï tïvïlbas incredible, incomprehensible; ažïldïŋ aayïn tïvar xerek it is necessary to understand the state of affairs; aayï-bile in the manner of; oruk aayï-bile in passing, incidentally; ağïm aayï-bile with the stream, current; klasstar aayï-bile by class; öŋ aayï-bile by colour; deŋzi aayï-bile by weight; alfavit aayï-bile in alphabetical order; ažïl aayï-bile by work; ööreen aayï-bile with pleasure; xoradaan aayï-bile out of spite; čugaalaan aayï-bile as a manner of speaking, in one’s opinion; maŋnaan aayï-bile with a running jump; öžešken aayï-bile out of stubbornness; aay xol right hand; aay salgïn favourable wind, fair wind; ahttïŋ aay čarïï the side on which one usually mounts the horse; aay oktalga positive charge; aayïnga kir- ~ aayïn ertpe- to agree, to reach an agreement; kiži aayïnga kirbe- to be not easy to manage; kiži aayïndan ertpe- to be obedient, dutiful. [Tofa aay]
  • aay-baš state, situation; order; čünüŋ aay-bažïn tïppas s/he does not understand the state of it; aay-baš čok in disorder; aay-baš čok šimčeeškin movement without order; aay-baš čok čoruk mess, jumble; nomnar aay-baš čok čïtkïlaan the books were lying about scattered; aay-bažï tïvïlbas chaotic.
  • aay-dedir back and forth.
  • aayla- to put in order; to arrange, to settle; to remove, to dispose of; bažïŋ ištin aayla- to tidy up the house.
  • aaylaaškïn the act of putting into order, settling, arrangement.
  • aaylan- to gather, to prepare (for the road); to come to, to regain consciousness; to put an end to one’s life, to commit suicide.
  • aaylandïr- to put in order, to arrange.
  • aaylandïrïïškin the act of putting into order, settling, arangement; direction.
  • aaylaš- to put in order together, to arange together; to be lucky, successful; aaylažïp ber- to help arrange; aŋnaarïmga meŋee aylažïp tur I was lucky at my hunting.
  • aaylaškak lucky, succesful; aaylaškak kiži lucky person.
  • aaylaštïr- to let put in order together.
  • aaylattïn- to prepare (for the road); to come to.
  • aaylïg orderly; feasible; čüve aaylïg boor the thing must be orderly; aaylïg ažïl feasable work; aaylïg xerek feasable matter; kandïg aaylïg? what, what kind of?; kandïg aaylïg ažïlïl? what kind of the work? kandïg aaylïg kižil? what kind of the person?
  • aaylïg very; senden aaylïg diledim be I vehemently beg of you.
  • aaza- to promise; bir-tee aazaan soonda küüse-dir once promised one must keep one’s word.
  • aazaaškïn promise; kurug aazaaškïn empty promise; bïžïg aazaaškïnnï ber- to give a solemn promise; aazaaškïnïn sal- to keep one’s promise.
  • aazakčï one who made a promise.
  • aazaš- to promise one another.
  • aazat- to open one’s mouth; aazadïpkan dïŋnap olur- to listen with one’s mouth open.
  • aazatpay (~ aazatpayak) scatter-brain; day-dreamer; slovenly individual; aazatpay čoruk heedlessness.
  • aazatpaylan- to be a scatter-brain, day-dreamer, slovenly individual.
  • aazattïr- to let open one’s mouth.
  • aažï manner, character. [LM aγasi]
  • aažï-čaŋ character, disposition, temper; kadïg aažï-čaŋ stern behaviour; čazïk-čaagay aažï-čaŋ open, good character; aažï-čaŋï eki (bak) kiži a person of good (bad) character; eeldek aažï-čaŋga öören- to learn civility, politeness. [LM aγasi-ĵaŋ]
  • aažï-čaŋnïg of a certain disposition; eldep aažï-čaŋnïg kiži person of queer character.
  • aažïla- to behave; eki (bak) aažïla- to behave kind (unkind), to treat well (bad); kara turazïnda aažïla- to behave wilfully. [LM aγasila-]
  • aažïlaaškïn act, deed; eki aažïlaaškïn good deed; ak setkildig aažïlaaškïn honest deed.
  • aažïlal act, deed.
  • aažïlan- to behave oneself; eki ažïlan- to behave oneself well.
  • aažïlat- to let or make behave.
  • aažïlïg of a certain disposition.
  • aažok very, greatly, terrible, awful, extraordinary; šölde ulus aažok xöy there are a great many people on the grounds; kolxoztarnïŋ malï aažok ösken the livestock of the kolxoz's have grown a great deal; avam aažok ööreen mother was very happy; aažok ulug very big, huge, gigantic, enormous; ačam aažok ulug adïg dayalap kaan my father killed an enormous bear.
  • ača father.
  • ačay daddy.
  • ačazïn- to regard as a father.
  • ačï [ahčï] grace, favour, good deed; ačïzï-bile thanks to, in consequence of. [LM ači]
  • ačïlïğ beneficial.
  • ačïmak [ahčïmak] quiver. [LM ačimaγ]
  • ada [ahda] father; soŋgu ada stepfather. [<CT *ata]
  • ada- to be called, to be named; to dictate (a text); to tell, to speak, to pronounce; meni Kara-kïs dep adaar they call me Kara-kïs; tekstini ada- to dictate the text; šïn ada- to speak the truth; toda ada- to speak clearly, to pronounce clearly. [<CT *a:ta-]
  • ada-čurt fatherland, motherland, homeland.
  • ada-čurttaš compatriot.
  • ada-iye parents.
  • ada-ögbe ancestors.
  • ada-töögü the old days, the old times; ada-töögü dužunda in the old days, formerly.
  • adaan [ahdaan] hate; revenge. [LM ataγa(n)]
  • adaan-öžeennig contest, competition (e.g. in shooting).
  • adaandagï below, following; adaandagï čižekter the examples below.
  • adaannïg hostile; exitable, reckless; adaannïg dayzïn sworn enemy; adaannïg oyun reckless game; adaannïg demisel competition.
  • adaarga- to envy. [LM antaγarqa-]
  • adaargak envious; jealous. [LM ataγarqaγ]
  • adaargal [ahdaargal] envy, jealousy. [LM ataγarqal]
  • adaargančïg enviable.
  • adagaš pole; telegraf adagaštarï telegraph poles.
  • adak underside, the part below; ežik adaa the underside of the door; xem adaa the lower reaches of a river; adaanga to the underside, below, underneath; adaanda at the underside, underneath; adaandan from underneath, from below; stol adaanda underneath the table; ahttar ïyaš adaanda turgan the horses were standing under the tree; adaktïŋ soonda eventually, finally, at last; [LM adaγ]
  • adakkï under, nether, being underneath; felt to cover the walls of the yurt; adakkï kaht ground floor.
  • adalïškïlar (~ adaškïlar) father and child(ren).
  • adan [ahdan] camel of burden (castrated). [LM ata(n)]
  • adaska skin on which to sleep; a good-for-nothing. [LM adasqa]
  • adaš playful address of girls towards youths.
  • adattïn- to be called.
  • adïg bear; ak adïg polar bear. [<CT *adïg]
  • adïg [ahdïg] shot, throw.
  • adïg-kiriži ivy.
  • adïgžï bowman, shooter, marksman, hunter.
  • adïguuzun animal, beast. [LM adaγusun]
  • adïïrga- to be conceited, presumptuous.
  • adïïrgak conceited, presumptuous, affected, pompous, vain.
  • adïïškïn shot, stroke, blow; xün adïïškïnï sunstroke.
  • adïm bowshot (as a unit of length).
  • adïr branch, fork, subdivision; oruk adïrï fork in the road.
  • adïr [ahdïr] wait a moment! coming! stop!
  • adïr- to separate, to release, let go; to unhook, to take off. [<CT *adïr-]
  • adïr-kuduruk wood-louse.
  • adïram cf. adïr wait!
  • adïrïk tributary; delta; fork of a river. [<CT *adruk]
  • adïrïkta- to make smaller, to get small-change.
  • adïrlïg branched, having many branches, tributaries, subdivisions; xöy adïrlïg ažïl-agïy economy with many branches.
  • adïš palm of the hand; handful. [<CT *aduč]
  • adïš [ahdïš] the shooting, a shot.
  • adïšta- to take a handful.
  • agaar air; weather; money. [←Kh agaar, LM agar]
  • agaarla- to go for a walk.
  • aganak [ahganak] white grouse.
  • agar [ahgar] wool of the second (autumnal) shearing of a sheep. [←Kh axar, LM aqur]
  • agar- to become white, to turn grey, to grow pale; to be innocent; bažï agara bergen his/her head has turned grey. [<CT *a:kar-]
  • agarla- to shear in autumn; xoy agarla- to shear sheep in autumn. [LM aqurla-]
  • agart- to make white. [<CT *a:kart-]
  • agban cf. ïgban dead branch.
  • agï species of wormwood (Artemesia, Compositae). [LM agi]
  • agïïčal flowing, streaming.
  • agïïnak cf. aganak white grouse.
  • agïïškïn the act of streaming, flowing.
  • agïm a current, a stream, a flow. [<CT *akïm]
  • agïr- to accompany a shaman, imitating his calling out loud.
  • agïs- (aksïr) to strain, to filter, to let flow, to turn on (the water).
  • agla- to hunt game using a battue, ambush.
  • ak white; ak xar white snow; ak xleb white bread; ak xep linen, washing; ak pös white fabric, white linen; ak dün ‘midnight sun’; ak baštïg ašak white-haired old man; ak aht white horse; ak čem food from milk, dairy dish; ak xendir flax; ak setkil honesty, integrity, uprightness, sincerity, candour; ak setkildig honest, upright, sincere; karak agï the white of the eye; ak xol person shirking rough work [Rus beloručka]. [<CT *a:k]
  • ak- [ahk-] (agar) to stream, to flow; xem daglar arazï-bile agïp čïdar the river flows amidst the mountains; balïgdan xan agïp čïtkan blood flowed from the wound; agar san account current. [<CT *ak-]
  • ak-balïk dace (Cyprinus Leuciscus); salmon species.
  • ak-bïdaa rice.
  • ak-demir aluminium.
  • ak-eeren shamanic idol.
  • ak-kïr grey roan (horse coat).
  • ak-kïzïl pale red, pink.
  • ak-kodan white hare.
  • ak-kožaalïk male gopher, male ground squirrel.
  • ak-kök grey, light blue.
  • ak-kuskun seagull.
  • ak-taraa wheat.
  • akï (~ akkï) [ahkkï] elder brother; form of address towards older men, uncle. [LM aγa]
  • akï-duŋma brothers and sisters, siblings; brotherly; akï-duŋma ulustar brotherly peoples; akï-duŋma boluru brotherhood.
  • akï-duŋmalažïïškïn fraternization.
  • akï-duŋmalïškï (~ akï-duŋmaškï) brotherly; akï-duŋmaškï čoruk brotherhood, fraternity; ulustarnïŋ akï-duŋmaškï čoruu the brotherhood of nations.
  • akïlïškï(lar) (~ akïškï(lar)) brothers, brothers and sisters, siblings.
  • akïy (form of address) elder brother, uncle.
  • akïzïn- to regard as a brother.
  • akkïr very white, snowwhite.
  • akkïrar- to become very white, to turn white.
  • akkïrart- to make very white, to turn white.
  • aksïmaar whitish.
  • akša (~ aška) [ahkša] money; akša xavï wallet.
  • akša-möŋgün money.
  • akša-tögerik money.
  • akša-xöreŋgi cash, capital.
  • akšala- to earn money.
  • akšalan- to acquire or gain money.
  • akšalandïr- to finance, to allocate money for.
  • akšalandïrïïškïn financing, grant.
  • akšalïg having money, rich; paid; akšïlïg ažïl paid work.
  • akšï- [ahkšï-] to grow old (of people).
  • akta gelding; castration. [LM aγta]
  • aktala- to castrate. [LM aγtala-]
  • aktïg innocent; aktïg töl innocent children.
  • al- (alïr) to take, to obtain, to receive, to get, to buy; -A/-I/-y al- (potential auxiliary); -(I)p al- (auxiliary ’doing for oneself’); ap (< *alïp) taking; aar (< *alïr) takes, taking; silerniŋ čagaaŋarnï algan men I received your letter; xemčeg al- to take measures, to make arrangements; bodap al- to think; sadïp al- to buy; nomčup al- to read, to spend time reading; olurup al- to sit down. [<CT *al-]
  • ala multicoloured, variegated, motley, piebald, skewbald; ala aht dappled horse; ala aržïïl multicoloured kerchief. [<CT *a:la]
  • ala-čaygaar in a haphazard or unorganised manner, spontaneously, involentarily, unintentionally.
  • ala-čaygaarla- to let take its course, to leave things to themselves.
  • ala-čaygaarlaaškïn drift, flow.
  • ala-šokar spotted, motley, variegated.
  • alaak forest glade (at river crossings and on islands).
  • alaakta- to go past a forest glade (at river crossings and islands).
  • alabuga perch, bass (a species of fish). [<CT *a:labuga]
  • alaga hammer. [←Kh alxa(n), LM aluqa(n)]
  • alaktaagï jumping hare, jerboa. [←Kh alagdaaga, LM alaγdaγa]
  • alandï thawed patch.
  • alaŋgïïš hellebore (Helleborus niger).
  • alaraŋayïn- (~ alaraŋna-) to flash (of the eyes).
  • alažï tent; tent pole; alažï ög tent made of bark.
  • albaara- to lose consciousness, to doze off, to forget oneself, to rave. [LM almaira-]
  • albada- to force, to coerce. [LM albada-]
  • albadat- to let force, coerce.
  • alban duty; service; taxes. [LM alba(n)]
  • alban-dužaal [alban-duhžaal] office, duty. [LM alba(n) tusiyal]
  • alban-xaakčï(t) employee, office worker, civil servant. [LM alban qaγaγči]
  • albatï subjects, people. [LM albatu]
  • albïk- to choke, to suffocate, to pant, to gasp (from lack of air, or fever).
  • albïktïr- to smother, to stifle, to strangle, to throttle.
  • albïn evil spirit, demon. [LM albin]
  • albïs evil spirit, devil, witch. [LM almas]
  • albïs-šulbus evil spirits.
  • albïsta- to lose one’s mind; to rave (like one possessed).
  • albïstïg possessed, obsessed; foolish, frolicsome, playful.
  • alda- to be mistaken, to err. [LM alda-]
  • aldag error, mistake; aldag kïl- to make a mistake. [cf. LM aldaγa]
  • aldagda- to be mistaken, to err. [LM aldaγda-]
  • aldagdal mistake, error, blunder. [LM aldaγdal]
  • aldalaa(n) six together; aldalaa čorupkan the six of them went.
  • aldaldïrzï six together.
  • aldan sixty; aldangï sixtieth. [<NE * altï + *on]
  • aldar fame, good reputation, glory. [LM aldar]
  • aldar-xündü respect, esteem, honour. [LM aldar-kündü]
  • aldara- to be unfit, disabled, put out of action; to be bewildered, confused. [LM aldara-]
  • aldarat- to make unfit, to disable, to put out of action; to bewilder, to confuse.
  • aldarlïg famous; respublikanïŋ aldarlïg artizi famous artist of the republic.
  • aldaržï- to become famous; aldaržaan maadïr famous hero. [LM aldarsi-]
  • aldaržït- to make famous.
  • Alday the Altay mountains.
  • aldï sable (animal); lynx. [<NE *aldï]
  • aldï [ahldï] six; aldïgï sixth. [<CT *altï]
  • aldï [ahldï] underside; aldïnga to the underside, underneath; aldïnda under; aldïndan from underneath. [<CT *alt]
  • aldï-kiš sable.
  • aldïï (~ aldïkï) underneath, nether, under; aldïï kaht ground floor.
  • aldïïrtan downwards; aldïïrtan örü kör- to look up and down.
  • aldïla- to hunt for sable.
  • aldïla- [ahldïla-] to complete six years; to go by six; to take by six.
  • aldïn [ahldïn] gold. [<CT *altun]
  • aldïn [ahldïn] lower part. [<CT *altïn]
  • aldïn- to be taken; ündezini kïldïr aldïn- to be taken as the base or principle of.
  • aldïn-doos (~ aldïn-togus) peacock.
  • aldïn-möŋgün gold and silver, treasures.
  • aldïnnalčak golden.
  • aldïr- to yield, to give in to, to give way, to let oneself be caught. [<CT *aldur-]
  • aldïrt- to yield, to give in to, to give way, to let oneself be caught.
  • ale isn’t it, really?
  • alga- [ahlga-] to bless, to give one’s blessing; to praise. [<CT *alka-]
  • algan- [ahlgan-] (of a shaman) to call out invocations, to shamanise, to exorcise.
  • algï cry, yell, scream, shout, shouting; algï ündür- to utter a cry.
  • algï [ahlgï] skin, leather, pelt.
  • algï- [ahlgï-] to widen, to be or become wider, broader, to expand (in capacity, size).
  • algï-kïškï crying, yelling, shouting.
  • algïg wide, broad, large (of clothes, shoes). [<CT *alkïg]
  • algïr- to shout, to call; to bellow, to howl, to wail; to buzz, to hoot; to croak.
  • algïrïš- to shout or yell together.
  • algïrt- to make shout, wail, hoot.
  • algïš [ahlkïs] blessing, benediction; farewell speech; incantation or spell by a shaman. [<CT *alkïš]
  • algïš [ahlgïš] quarrel, squabble.
  • algïš-yöreel blessing, benediction; farewell speech.
  • algïš- [ahlgïš-] to quarrel, to squabble.
  • algït- to widen, to broaden, to expand, to make wide, broad.
  • algïy [ahlgïy] small flat dish (used by hunters).
  • alïkčï recipient; sadïp alïkčï buyer.
  • alïksa- to want to take, buy; bo nomnu alïksap tur men I want to buy this book.
  • alïksak self-interested, mercenary; alïksak kiži self-interested person; alïksak čoruk self-interest, mercenariness.
  • alïksakčï profit-seeker, mercenary-minded person.
  • alïksančïg desirable.
  • alïksat- to make want to take, buy.
  • alïm debt; retribution, repayment. [<CT *alïm]
  • alïmna- to recover a debt.
  • alïmnïg having debts, obligations.
  • alïn face; alïn čok shameless; ïyadïr alïn čok shameless. [<CT *a:lïn]
  • alïn- to take for oneself; sagïš alïn- to guess, to suspect, to surmise; sezik alïn- to become suspect. [<CT *alïn-]
  • alïndïr-: sagïš alïndïr- to suggest; sezik alïndïr- to evoke suspicion. [<CT *alïndur-]
  • alïs distant; end, aim, purpose; root, source; alïs küzel cherished wish. [LM alus]
  • alïs- (alzïr) to to be taken; to fall in the hands of somebody; sookka alïs- to catch a cold, to catch a chill.
  • alïš- (alčïr) to take together, to take each other; sös alïš- to promise to each other. [<CT *alïš-]
  • alïš-beriš exchange.
  • Altay cf. Alday the Altay mountains.
  • am now; am-daa quite, already. [<CT *am]
  • ama measure of cloth, whose length is equal to its width; list; parlaar ama quire, printer’s sheet. [LM ama]
  • amadï head of the femur.
  • amagayla- to put on a halter. [LM amaγaila-]
  • amala- to measure cloth by its width. [LM amala-]
  • amala- to promise, to swear. [LM amala-]
  • amdan [ahmdan] the taste (of food). [LM amta(n)]
  • amdan-čimden taste.
  • amdannal- to be or become tasty, to have taste.
  • amdannaldïr- to make tasty.
  • amdannan- to taste, to sense the taste of; to regale oneself.
  • amdannïg tasty, delicious; amdannïg čem tasty food.
  • amdïï (~ amdïkï ~ amdïgï) the same, the very same; amdïï ool that very fellow; amdïï čaa not long ago, recently, just now; samolyot amdïï čaa keldi the airplane arrived just now; amdïï čïlïn in the next year; amdïï kiži my spouse, my wife, my husband (term used when referring to one’s spouse in his/her absence); amdïï kiži ažïldap turar my husband/wife is working.
  • Amerikanïŋ Kattïškan Štattarï United States of America.
  • amgï today’s, nowadays, current, present, contemporary; amgï üyede at present; amgï šagda nowadays; amgï čogaalčïlar contemporary writers.
  • amï life (biology); amï čok lifeless; amï čok boydus inanimate nature. [LM ami(n)]
  • amï-tïn life; amï-tïnïn al- to rescue, to save the life of; amï-tïnïn xaramnanma- to not spare the life of; amï-tïnïn artïnga kag- to risk one’s life.
  • amï-tïnnïg alive.
  • amï-xuu personal, private; ooŋ amï-xuu xeree-dir it is his/her own business; amï-xuuda, amï-xuuzunda personally, privately.
  • amïday namesake. [LM amidai]
  • amïdïra- to live, to exist. [LM amidura-]
  • amïdïral life, existence. [LM amidural]
  • amïlan- to be alive, to keep body and soul together, to subsist.
  • amïlïg alive, living, animate, organic; amïlïg amïtan living creature; amïlïg boydus living nature, organic nature.
  • amïr quiet, calm, placid; easy, not difficult; amïr-la-dïr be! peace onto you! amïr ažïl-dïr it is easy work; amïr eves not easy; amïr kiži placid person, easy-going person. [LM amur]
  • amïr-mendi health, well-being; amïr-mendi aytïr- to wish good health, to greet; amïr-mendi soluš- to exchange greetings; amïr-mendiŋni aytïrdïm how are you doing? (lit. I have asked your health); amïr-mendi čok without greeting, impolite, rude. [LM amir-mendü]
  • amïra- to rest, to console oneself, to take comfort; to rejoice, to enjoy, to be glad; sen kelgeniŋge aažok amïradïm I am very glad you have come. [LM amura-]
  • amïrak dear, beloved. [LM amuraγ]
  • amïral happiness; rest. [LM amural]
  • amïral cf. avïral salvation, protection; mercy.
  • amïrat- to make happy; to enjoy; bo bodal onu amïratkan this thought made him/her happy.
  • amïrga cf. avïrga bugle for luring maral deer.
  • amïrga-maŋgïs cf. amïrga-moos monster.
  • amïrga-moos (mythical) monster. [LM aburγa]
  • amïtan creature, animal; these all, those here, bunch; kandaay amïtan sen? what kind of creature are you?; azïral amïtannar domestic livestock; amïtannar aymaa the realm of animals; amïtan nomnarïŋ kančaar sen? what will you do with all those books of yours? [LM amitan]
  • amza- to taste. [LM amsa-]
  • ana well, then; ana at bolgan how terrible!
  • anaa usual, ordinary, simple; okay, fine, well, just so; anaa, anaa okay okay, I got the point, hm; anaa karandažïŋ bar be? do you have an ordinary pencil?; anaa-la simply, just, without ceremony; bis anaa-la parkže kïlaštap čorduvus we just walked to the park (for no particular reason); anaa eves unusual, uncommon, extraordinary, special, not just so; sen anaa eves beer čedip keldiŋ you came here for a reason; anaa eves ulus dur siler, onu utpaŋar you are special people, don’t forget it; anaa prosto just because, just so; sen čüü deeš činči bile oškažïp turgan sen? anaa prosto why is it you and Pearl were kissing? just because; anaada usually.
  • anaar cf. ïnaar to there, thither.
  • anay [ahnay] kid, lamb; čaš anay young kid; ivi anay fawn.
  • anay-kara darling, sweetie; anay-kara čažïndan from a tender age.
  • anayla- of a goat to kid, of a deer to give birth to a fawn.
  • anča cf. ïnča so much, this much.
  • anča- cf. ïnča- to do thus.
  • ančïg boring, irksome, bothersome, unpleasant, disagreeable, annoying; ungainly, clumsy; ančïg kiži nuisance, bore; ančïg kïlïn- to pester, to bother, to bore; to tease, to excite; ančïg čugaa unpleasant talk.
  • ančïgzïn- to become angry
  • ančïgzïndïr- to make angry, to annoy.
  • anda cf. ïnda at him, her; there. [<CT *anda ~ *anta]
  • andag cf. ïndag like that, thus. [<CT *andag ~ *antag]
  • andazïn plow. [←Kh andis(an), LM anĵisu(n)]
  • anïyak [ahnïyak] young; anïyaamda in my youth; anïyaaŋdan from the time of your youth; anïyaktar youth, the young people; sovyet anïyaktar the Soviet youth; anïyaktar organizaciyazï youth organisation.
  • ava mother.
  • avakïm mommy.
  • avaangïr [ahvaangïr] adroit, dexterous, deft, able, skillful; prompt, swift; smart, nimble, quick-fingered.
  • avaansa promotion. [←Rus avans]
  • avagay sir, madam. [LM abaqai]
  • aval (< ap al) take it.
  • avalïškï(lar) (~ avaškï(lar)) mother and child(ren).
  • avay mommy, mum (term of address); avayïm mother! (exclamation of fear).
  • avïra cf. azïra heavens!
  • avïra-azïra goodness! heavens!
  • avïral salvation, deliverance; protection; mercy; help; amnesty; seeŋ avïralïŋ-bile, seeŋ avïralïŋda thanks to you, owing to you. [LM abural]
  • avïralda- to ask for, to beg; to take care of, to spare, to protect.
  • avïraldïg beneficial, beneficient, offering help, protective; merciful; avïraldïg alday-taŋdïm my merciful Altay taiga; avïraldïg kiži person helping others.
  • avïrar- (~ avïraŋna-) to be or become dishevelled, tousled, tattered.
  • avïraš dishevelled, tattered, tousled, shaggy; avïraš baš dügü tousled hair.
  • avïrga bugle for luring maral deer.
  • avïrgan [ahvïrgan] flying squirrel.
  • avïrganna- to hunt flying squirrels.
  • avïyaas hypocrisy, slyness, pretence, sham. [LM abiyas]
  • avïyaasta- to be hypocritical, cunning, to pretend, to feign.
  • avïyaastan- to pretend, to feign; čüge avïyaastanïr sen? why are you pretending?
  • avïyaastïg hypocritical, sly, insinuating.
  • avïyaazïn cf. avïyaas hypocrisy, slyness, pretence, sham.
  • avïyaazïnnan- cf. avïyaasta- to be hypocritical, cunning, to pretend, to feign.