Difference between revisions of "A"
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*'''avïyaazïn''' cf. '''avïyaas''' hypocrisy, slyness, pretence, sham.
*'''avïyaazïn''' cf. '''avïyaas''' hypocrisy, slyness, pretence, sham.
*'''avïyaazïnnan-''' cf. '''avïyaasta-''' to be hypocritical, cunning, to pretend, to feign.
*'''avïyaazïnnan-''' cf. '''avïyaasta-''' to be hypocritical, cunning, to pretend, to feign.
Revision as of 16:47, 18 December 2007
- a but, and; a ol ïškaš and likewise; men čoruptayn, a sen artïp kag let me go, but you must stay; bo dalay eves, a xöl-dür this is not a sea but a lake; kïš düšken, a xar am-daa čagbaan winter has set in but it has not snowed yet; bo tool eves, a xerek kïrïnda bolgan čüve-dir this is not a story but something that happened in fact; a čül dize namely, that is; a čül ïnčaš? what exactly? [←Rus a]
- aa ah!; aa, bo siler ïškažïŋar čül! ah, it is you!; aa, siler čanïp kelgen ïškaš čül siler! ah, so you have returned apparently!; aa, čüü didir sen? ah, what are you saying?
- aa (emphatic particle); bo čüveniŋ čiktiin aa! this is an ashtonishing thing!; ekizin aa! how good! čüge ïïttavayn-dïr sen aa? why is it you are keeping mum?
- aa biestings, colostrum; inek aazï cow biestings.
- aadam (~ aadama) fiery (of horses).
- aadamna- of horses to be obstinate, refractory, restive, fiery; to gambol, to frisk.
- aadaŋ piece of leather or textile for wrapping tea or tobacco.
- aadaŋna- to wrap in a wrapping for tea or tobacco.
- aadïg rocking, swinging; rocking chair.
- aadïïškïn rocking, swinging.
- aagayla- to persuade, to talk into.
- aagaylat- to let persuade, to let talk into.
- aak strength of taste; šaynïŋ aagï the strong taste of tea; xandïnïŋ aagï the strong taste of nastoyka liqueur. [←Kh aag, LM aγa]
- aak whim, caprice.
- aak consequence, after-effects; sook aagï (~ sooktuŋ aagï) the after-effects of cold; bögün sook-tur, xar aagïndan ïnčap tur boor it is cold today, evidently as a consequence of the snow.
- aak rebuke, reproach.
- aak- (of a sick child) to be whimsical, to complain.
- aak-baak (~ aak-maak): aak-maak četpe very quick, in a moment; aak-baak-daa četpes quickly, in a flash.
- aaksïg of strong taste, tasty; aaksïg šay strong tea.
- aaksït- to make strong (tea); šaynï aaksïdïr xayïndïr- to brew strong tea.
- aakta- to reproach. [LM ayaγla-]
- aaktal- (of a sick child) to complain.
- aaktïg fickle, capricious (of a sick child).
- aal settlement, encampment, village, house; aal kodanï village grounds; olar aalïnda they are at home; aal malï domestic animals; aal išti inhabitant of a house, village; member of the family; ulug aal prison, jail. [<CT *a:gïl, cf. LM ail]
- aal (term of address) boy, chap; friend, comrade; kandïg (~ kančaar) čurttap tur sen, aal? how is life, chap?
- aal-oran place of residence, home; aal-oran čok homeless.
- aala- to cry (of a child), to shout, to howl (of animals).
- aalčï guest; xündülüg aalčï honoured guest; aalčïlar bažïŋï guest house, hotel. [LM ayilči(n)]
- aalda- to visit; ködeede törelderimge aaldap čoraan men I visited my relatives in town; adïg aalda- to hunt bears (lit. to visit the bear).
- aaldaš- to visit one another.
- aaldat- to let visit, to invite.
- aamay stupid, confused; scatter-brain; day-dreamer. [Tofa aamay]
- aamaylan- to loiter, to linger.
- aan later; aan kelir men I will come later on. [Tofa aan]
- aan (emphatic particle) kïmïl ol? oglum aan who is that? this now is my son; bo nomnu aan, nomčudun be? as for this book, have you read it? [Tofa aan]
- aanakayïn (~ aanaytan ~ anaytkan) unexpectedly; moreover; again; aanaytan, xar baza čaapkan it snowed inopportunely.
- aaŋayïn- to sob, to howl, to bawl.
- aap-saap several, small, petty; aap-saap ažïldar odd jobs; aap-saap čüve small things.
- aar heavy; difficult, severe; expensive; weight, burdon; aar čühk heavy load; aar aarïg severe illness; aar ažïl heavy work, hard labour; šoodaynïŋ aarï the weight of the bag. [<CT *agïr]
- aar oh!; seni aar! oh, you!
- aar < alïr takes, taking; cf. al- to take.
- aar other side; aar iy northern slope of a mountain where the sun does not shine; Möŋgün Tayganïŋ aar iyi the northern slope of Mount Möŋgün.
- aar-berge severe, heavy; aar-berge amïdïral harsh life; aar-berge oruk heavy journey.
- aar-saar several, small, routine; bažïŋnïŋ aar-saar septelgezi routine repairs on the house; aar-saar xerekter small affairs.
- aarak rather; sïmïranï aarak rather whisperingly; xülümzürüy aarak smiling a bit.
- aaray well; küžür erni aaray well, what a man!
- aarï- to become ill, to suffer from a disease, to be hurting; to be fan of; malyariyadan aarï- to suffer from malaria; ool aarïp tur his/her son is ill; bažïm aarïp tur I have a headache; kayï komanda deeš aarïïr siler? what team are you fan of?; ehdi aarï- of labour pains to set in; sagïš aarï- to suffer from a mental illness. [<CT *agrï-]
- aarï-aržï- to be ill.
- aarïg illness, disease, pain; ill, sick; baš aarïï headache; diš aarïï tooth ache; sagïš aarïï mental illness; aar aarïg severe disease; xooču aarïg chronic disease; xaldavïrlïg aarïg infectious disease; aarïg kiži ill person, patient; tenek aarïg lunatic; aarïglarnï baš udur boldurbas dugayïnda ažïl profilactic work. [<CT *agïrïg]
- aarïgan ailing, sickly.
- aarïganna- to be sickly, to be often ill.
- aarïg-aržïk diseases, ilnesses.
- aarïg-aržïktïg suffering from diseases, ilnesses.
- aarïg-čovulaŋ pangs, (serious) disease.
- aarïgla- (of plants) to be diseased; bo ünüš aarïglay bergen this plant is diseased.
- aarïglïg ill, sick; painful, sore; aarïglïg urug sick child; aarïglïg aytïrïg painful subject. [<CT *agïrïglïg]
- aarïgzï- to be ill, unwell, indisposed.
- aarïgzïn- to feel not healthy, ill; men aarïgzïnïp tur men I am not feeling well.
- aarïïčal sickly.
- aarïkčï fan, supporter.
- aarïkšï pain, illness.
- aarïkšïlïg painful, hurting.
- aarïksa- to ache a little, on and off, now and then; baš aarïksap tur I am having a bit of a headache.
- aarïšïnčak squeamish.
- aaršïlïg painful, hurting; arïnïŋ šagarï aaršïlïg a bee sting is painful; meŋee aaršïlïg-dïr I feel pain, it hurts me.
- aart- to make ill.
- aarta- to weigh, to be heavy; čahstan ton aartay bergen the garment became heavy from the rain; bažïm aartay bergen my head became heavy; adaa aarta- to become pregnant.
- aarta- to sip; šay aarta- to sip from the tea.
- aartat- to make heavy.
- aartïk burden, obstacle.
- aartïkta- to consider as a burden, obstacle.
- aarzïn- to feel the weight of; to feel ill, to be failing.
- aarzïnčak squeamish.
- aarzïndïr- to cause harm, to hurt.
- aaržï cheese curd, strained sediment of sour milk; kurgag aaržï dried curds; öl aaržï moist curds. [←Kh aarc, LM aγarča(n)]
- aaržï-čökpek diary products.
- aaržï-xoytpak food products prepared from sour milk.
- aaržïla- to prepare cheese curds.
- aaržïlïg containing cheese curds.
- aas mouth; mouth of a river; opening; aksï his/her/its mouth; aas išti oral cavity; adïg aksï bear’s mouth, jaws; xem aksï estuary; boo aksï muzzle of a gun; ottug dag aksï crater of a vulcano; aas čugaa spoken language; ulustuŋ aas čogaalï folklore, folk arts; aas-bile oral, by mouth; aas ayïïlï wicked or spiteful tongue; bak aas gossip. [<CT *agïz]
- aas lid; xönek aksï the lid of a teapot.
- aas-dïl argument, quarrel, scandal; aas-dïl kïl- to argue, to quarrel.
- aas-dïldïg quarrelsome.
- aas-kežik good fate, luck, happiness.
- aas-kežiktig lucky.
- aaspïrak rude, sharp-tongued.
- aastïg quarrelsome.
- aat- to dandle, to rock, to swing, to sway; čaš urugnu aat- to rock the baby.
- aatkïïš hook on which to suspend the cradle; swings; seesaws.
- aatkïïšta- to dandle, to rock, to swing, to sway.
- aattïn- to swing; aatkïïška aattïn- to swing on the swings.
- aattïnčak hanging, pendant; aattïnčak kavay hanging cradle.
- aattïnïš- to swing together.
- aay order; direction; way, manner; essence, main point, gist, sense, purport; state, condition, situation; kandïg-daa aay čok without any order, disorderly, chaotic; xattïŋ aayï direction of the wind; šimčeeškinniŋ aayï direction of a movement; čugaanïŋ aayï the character of the conversation; xerektiŋ aayï kandïgïl? how is the state of affairs?; čüveniŋ aayï the gist of the thing; aytïrïgnïŋ aayï the purport of the question; aay bar it makes sense; aayïn tïp- to comprehend, to grasp, to gain an understanding of; to find a solution, way out; aayï tïvïlbas incredible, incomprehensible; ažïldïŋ aayïn tïvar xerek it is necessary to understand the state of affairs; aayï-bile in the manner of; oruk aayï-bile in passing, incidentally; ağïm aayï-bile with the stream, current; klasstar aayï-bile by class; öŋ aayï-bile by colour; deŋzi aayï-bile by weight; alfavit aayï-bile in alphabetical order; ažïl aayï-bile by work; ööreen aayï-bile with pleasure; xoradaan aayï-bile out of spite; čugaalaan aayï-bile as a manner of speaking, in one’s opinion; maŋnaan aayï-bile with a running jump; öžešken aayï-bile out of stubbornness; aay xol right hand; aay salgïn favourable wind, fair wind; ahttïŋ aay čarïï the side on which one usually mounts the horse; aay oktalga positive charge; aayïnga kir- ~ aayïn ertpe- to agree, to reach an agreement; kiži aayïnga kirbe- to be not easy to manage; kiži aayïndan ertpe- to be obedient, dutiful. [Tofa aay]
- aay-baš state, situation; order; čünüŋ aay-bažïn tïppas s/he does not understand the state of it; aay-baš čok in disorder; aay-baš čok šimčeeškin movement without order; aay-baš čok čoruk mess, jumble; nomnar aay-baš čok čïtkïlaan the books were lying about scattered; aay-bažï tïvïlbas chaotic.
- aay-dedir back and forth.
- aayla- to put in order; to arrange, to settle; to remove, to dispose of; bažïŋ ištin aayla- to tidy up the house.
- aaylaaškïn the act of putting into order, settling, arrangement.
- aaylan- to gather, to prepare (for the road); to come to, to regain consciousness; to put an end to one’s life, to commit suicide.
- aaylandïr- to put in order, to arrange.
- aaylandïrïïškin the act of putting into order, settling, arangement; direction.
- aaylaš- to put in order together, to arange together; to be lucky, successful; aaylažïp ber- to help arrange; aŋnaarïmga meŋee aylažïp tur I was lucky at my hunting.
- aaylaškak lucky, succesful; aaylaškak kiži lucky person.
- aaylaštïr- to let put in order together.
- aaylattïn- to prepare (for the road); to come to.
- aaylïg orderly; feasible; čüve aaylïg boor the thing must be orderly; aaylïg ažïl feasable work; aaylïg xerek feasable matter; kandïg aaylïg? what, what kind of?; kandïg aaylïg ažïlïl? what kind of the work? kandïg aaylïg kižil? what kind of the person?
- aaylïg very; senden aaylïg diledim be I vehemently beg of you.
- aaza- to promise; bir-tee aazaan soonda küüse-dir once promised one must keep one’s word.
- aazaaškïn promise; kurug aazaaškïn empty promise; bïžïg aazaaškïnnï ber- to give a solemn promise; aazaaškïnïn sal- to keep one’s promise.
- aazakčï one who made a promise.
- aazaš- to promise one another.
- aazat- to open one’s mouth; aazadïpkan dïŋnap olur- to listen with one’s mouth open.
- aazatpay (~ aazatpayak) scatter-brain; day-dreamer; slovenly individual; aazatpay čoruk heedlessness.
- aazatpaylan- to be a scatter-brain, day-dreamer, slovenly individual.
- aazattïr- to let open one’s mouth.
- aažï manner, character. [LM aγasi]
- aažï-čaŋ character, disposition, temper; kadïg aažï-čaŋ stern behaviour; čazïk-čaagay aažï-čaŋ open, good character; aažï-čaŋï eki (bak) kiži a person of good (bad) character; eeldek aažï-čaŋga öören- to learn civility, politeness. [LM aγasi-ĵaŋ]
- aažï-čaŋnïg of a certain disposition; eldep aažï-čaŋnïg kiži person of queer character.
- aažïla- to behave; eki (bak) aažïla- to behave kind (unkind), to treat well (bad); kara turazïnda aažïla- to behave wilfully. [LM aγasila-]
- aažïlaaškïn act, deed; eki aažïlaaškïn good deed; ak setkildig aažïlaaškïn honest deed.
- aažïlal act, deed.
- aažïlan- to behave oneself; eki ažïlan- to behave oneself well.
- aažïlat- to let or make behave.
- aažïlïg of a certain disposition.
- aažok very, greatly, terrible, awful, extraordinary; šölde ulus aažok xöy there are a great many people on the grounds; kolxoztarnïŋ malï aažok ösken the livestock of the kolxoz's have grown a great deal; avam aažok ööreen mother was very happy; aažok ulug very big, huge, gigantic, enormous; ačam aažok ulug adïg dayalap kaan my father killed an enormous bear.
- ača father.
- ačay daddy.
- ačazïn- to regard as a father.
- ačï [ahčï] grace, favour, good deed; ačïzï-bile thanks to, in consequence of. [LM ači]
- ačïlïğ beneficial.
- ačïmak [ahčïmak] quiver. [LM ačimaγ]
- ada [ahda] father; soŋgu ada stepfather. [<CT *ata]
- ada- to be called, to be named; to dictate (a text); to tell, to speak, to pronounce; meni Kara-kïs dep adaar they call me Kara-kïs; tekstini ada- to dictate the text; šïn ada- to speak the truth; toda ada- to speak clearly, to pronounce clearly. [<CT *a:ta-]
- ada-čurt fatherland, motherland, homeland.
- ada-čurttaš compatriot.
- ada-iye parents.
- ada-ögbe ancestors.
- ada-töögü the old days, the old times; ada-töögü dužunda in the old days, formerly.
- adaan [ahdaan] hate; revenge. [LM ataγa(n)]
- adaan-öžeennig contest, competition (e.g. in shooting).
- adaandagï below, following; adaandagï čižekter the examples below.
- adaannïg hostile; exitable, reckless; adaannïg dayzïn sworn enemy; adaannïg oyun reckless game; adaannïg demisel competition.
- adaarga- to envy. [LM antaγarqa-]
- adaargak envious; jealous. [LM ataγarqaγ]
- adaargal [ahdaargal] envy, jealousy. [LM ataγarqal]
- adaargančïg enviable.
- adagaš pole; telegraf adagaštarï telegraph poles.
- adak underside, the part below; ežik adaa the underside of the door; xem adaa the lower reaches of a river; adaanga to the underside, below, underneath; adaanda at the underside, underneath; adaandan from underneath, from below; stol adaanda underneath the table; ahttar ïyaš adaanda turgan the horses were standing under the tree; adaktïŋ soonda eventually, finally, at last; [LM adaγ]
- adakkï under, nether, being underneath; felt to cover the walls of the yurt; adakkï kaht ground floor.
- adalïškïlar (~ adaškïlar) father and child(ren).
- adan [ahdan] camel of burden (castrated). [LM ata(n)]
- adaska skin on which to sleep; a good-for-nothing. [LM adasqa]
- adaš playful address of girls towards youths.
- adattïn- to be called.
- adïg bear; ak adïg polar bear. [<CT *adïg]
- adïg [ahdïg] shot, throw.
- adïg-kiriži ivy.
- adïgžï bowman, shooter, marksman, hunter.
- adïguuzun animal, beast. [LM adaγusun]
- adïïrga- to be conceited, presumptuous.
- adïïrgak conceited, presumptuous, affected, pompous, vain.
- adïïškïn shot, stroke, blow; xün adïïškïnï sunstroke.
- adïm bowshot (as a unit of length).
- adïr branch, fork, subdivision; oruk adïrï fork in the road.
- adïr [ahdïr] wait a moment! coming! stop!
- adïr- to separate, to release, let go; to unhook, to take off. [<CT *adïr-]
- adïr-kuduruk wood-louse.
- adïram cf. adïr wait!
- adïrïk tributary; delta; fork of a river. [<CT *adruk]
- adïrïkta- to make smaller, to get small-change.
- adïrlïg branched, having many branches, tributaries, subdivisions; xöy adïrlïg ažïl-agïy economy with many branches.
- adïš palm of the hand; handful. [<CT *aduč]
- adïš [ahdïš] the shooting, a shot.
- adïšta- to take a handful.
- agaar air; weather; money. [←Kh agaar, LM agar]
- agaarla- to go for a walk.
- aganak [ahganak] white grouse.
- agar [ahgar] wool of the second (autumnal) shearing of a sheep. [←Kh axar, LM aqur]
- agar- to become white, to turn grey, to grow pale; to be innocent; bažï agara bergen his/her head has turned grey. [<CT *a:kar-]
- agarla- to shear in autumn; xoy agarla- to shear sheep in autumn. [LM aqurla-]
- agart- to make white. [<CT *a:kart-]
- agban cf. ïgban dead branch.
- agï species of wormwood (Artemesia, Compositae). [LM agi]
- agïïčal flowing, streaming.
- agïïnak cf. aganak white grouse.
- agïïškïn the act of streaming, flowing.
- agïm a current, a stream, a flow. [<CT *akïm]
- agïr- to accompany a shaman, imitating his calling out loud.
- agïs- (aksïr) to strain, to filter, to let flow, to turn on (the water).
- agla- to hunt game using a battue, ambush.
- ak white; ak xar white snow; ak xleb white bread; ak xep linen, washing; ak pös white fabric, white linen; ak dün ‘midnight sun’; ak baštïg ašak white-haired old man; ak aht white horse; ak čem food from milk, dairy dish; ak xendir flax; ak setkil honesty, integrity, uprightness, sincerity, candour; ak setkildig honest, upright, sincere; karak agï the white of the eye; ak xol person shirking rough work [Rus beloručka]. [<CT *a:k]
- ak- [ahk-] (agar) to stream, to flow; xem daglar arazï-bile agïp čïdar the river flows amidst the mountains; balïgdan xan agïp čïtkan blood flowed from the wound; agar san account current. [<CT *ak-]
- ak-balïk dace (Cyprinus Leuciscus); salmon species.
- ak-bïdaa rice.
- ak-demir aluminium.
- ak-eeren shamanic idol.
- ak-kïr grey roan (horse coat).
- ak-kïzïl pale red, pink.
- ak-kodan white hare.
- ak-kožaalïk male gopher, male ground squirrel.
- ak-kök grey, light blue.
- ak-kuskun seagull.
- ak-taraa wheat.
- akï (~ akkï) [ahkkï] elder brother; form of address towards older men, uncle. [LM aγa]
- akï-duŋma brothers and sisters, siblings; brotherly; akï-duŋma ulustar brotherly peoples; akï-duŋma boluru brotherhood.
- akï-duŋmalažïïškïn fraternization.
- akï-duŋmalïškï (~ akï-duŋmaškï) brotherly; akï-duŋmaškï čoruk brotherhood, fraternity; ulustarnïŋ akï-duŋmaškï čoruu the brotherhood of nations.
- akïlïškï(lar) (~ akïškï(lar)) brothers, brothers and sisters, siblings.
- akïy (form of address) elder brother, uncle.
- akïzïn- to regard as a brother.
- akkïr very white, snowwhite.
- akkïrar- to become very white, to turn white.
- akkïrart- to make very white, to turn white.
- aksïmaar whitish.
- akša (~ aška) [ahkša] money; akša xavï wallet.
- akša-möŋgün money.
- akša-tögerik money.
- akša-xöreŋgi cash, capital.
- akšala- to earn money.
- akšalan- to acquire or gain money.
- akšalandïr- to finance, to allocate money for.
- akšalandïrïïškïn financing, grant.
- akšalïg having money, rich; paid; akšïlïg ažïl paid work.
- akšï- [ahkšï-] to grow old (of people).
- akta gelding; castration. [LM aγta]
- aktala- to castrate. [LM aγtala-]
- aktïg innocent; aktïg töl innocent children.
- al- (alïr) to take, to obtain, to receive, to get, to buy; -A/-I/-y al- (potential auxiliary); -(I)p al- (auxiliary ’doing for oneself’); ap (< *alïp) taking; aar (< *alïr) takes, taking; silerniŋ čagaaŋarnï algan men I received your letter; xemčeg al- to take measures, to make arrangements; bodap al- to think; sadïp al- to buy; nomčup al- to read, to spend time reading; olurup al- to sit down. [<CT *al-]
- ala multicoloured, variegated, motley, piebald, skewbald; ala aht dappled horse; ala aržïïl multicoloured kerchief. [<CT *a:la]
- ala-čaygaar in a haphazard or unorganised manner, spontaneously, involentarily, unintentionally.
- ala-čaygaarla- to let take its course, to leave things to themselves.
- ala-čaygaarlaaškïn drift, flow.
- ala-šokar spotted, motley, variegated.
- alaak forest glade (at river crossings and on islands).
- alaakta- to go past a forest glade (at river crossings and islands).
- alabuga perch, bass (a species of fish). [<CT *a:labuga]
- alaga hammer. [←Kh alxa(n), LM aluqa(n)]
- alaktaagï jumping hare, jerboa. [←Kh alagdaaga, LM alaγdaγa]
- alandï thawed patch.
- alaŋgïïš hellebore (Helleborus niger).
- alaraŋayïn- (~ alaraŋna-) to flash (of the eyes).
- alažï tent; tent pole; alažï ög tent made of bark.
- albaara- to lose consciousness, to doze off, to forget oneself, to rave. [LM almaira-]
- albada- to force, to coerce. [LM albada-]
- albadat- to let force, coerce.
- alban duty; service; taxes. [LM alba(n)]
- alban-dužaal [alban-duhžaal] office, duty. [LM alba(n) tusiyal]
- alban-xaakčï(t) employee, office worker, civil servant. [LM alban qaγaγči]
- albatï subjects, people. [LM albatu]
- albïk- to choke, to suffocate, to pant, to gasp (from lack of air, or fever).
- albïktïr- to smother, to stifle, to strangle, to throttle.
- albïn evil spirit, demon. [LM albin]
- albïs evil spirit, devil, witch. [LM almas]
- albïs-šulbus evil spirits.
- albïsta- to lose one’s mind; to rave (like one possessed).
- albïstïg possessed, obsessed; foolish, frolicsome, playful.
- alda- to be mistaken, to err. [LM alda-]
- aldag error, mistake; aldag kïl- to make a mistake. [cf. LM aldaγa]
- aldagda- to be mistaken, to err. [LM aldaγda-]
- aldagdal mistake, error, blunder. [LM aldaγdal]
- aldalaa(n) six together; aldalaa čorupkan the six of them went.
- aldaldïrzï six together.
- aldan sixty; aldangï sixtieth. [<NE * altï + *on]
- aldar fame, good reputation, glory. [LM aldar]
- aldar-xündü respect, esteem, honour. [LM aldar-kündü]
- aldara- to be unfit, disabled, put out of action; to be bewildered, confused. [LM aldara-]
- aldarat- to make unfit, to disable, to put out of action; to bewilder, to confuse.
- aldarlïg famous; respublikanïŋ aldarlïg artizi famous artist of the republic.
- aldaržï- to become famous; aldaržaan maadïr famous hero. [LM aldarsi-]
- aldaržït- to make famous.
- Alday the Altay mountains.
- aldï sable (animal); lynx. [<NE *aldï]
- aldï [ahldï] six; aldïgï sixth. [<CT *altï]
- aldï [ahldï] underside; aldïnga to the underside, underneath; aldïnda under; aldïndan from underneath. [<CT *alt]
- aldï-kiš sable.
- aldïï (~ aldïkï) underneath, nether, under; aldïï kaht ground floor.
- aldïïrtan downwards; aldïïrtan örü kör- to look up and down.
- aldïla- to hunt for sable.
- aldïla- [ahldïla-] to complete six years; to go by six; to take by six.
- aldïn [ahldïn] gold. [<CT *altun]
- aldïn [ahldïn] lower part. [<CT *altïn]
- aldïn- to be taken; ündezini kïldïr aldïn- to be taken as the base or principle of.
- aldïn-doos (~ aldïn-togus) peacock.
- aldïn-möŋgün gold and silver, treasures.
- aldïnnalčak golden.
- aldïr- to yield, to give in to, to give way, to let oneself be caught. [<CT *aldur-]
- aldïrt- to yield, to give in to, to give way, to let oneself be caught.
- ale isn’t it, really?
- alga- [ahlga-] to bless, to give one’s blessing; to praise. [<CT *alka-]
- algan- [ahlgan-] (of a shaman) to call out invocations, to shamanise, to exorcise.
- algï cry, yell, scream, shout, shouting; algï ündür- to utter a cry.
- algï [ahlgï] skin, leather, pelt.
- algï- [ahlgï-] to widen, to be or become wider, broader, to expand (in capacity, size).
- algï-kïškï crying, yelling, shouting.
- algïg wide, broad, large (of clothes, shoes). [<CT *alkïg]
- algïr- to shout, to call; to bellow, to howl, to wail; to buzz, to hoot; to croak.
- algïrïš- to shout or yell together.
- algïrt- to make shout, wail, hoot.
- algïš [ahlkïs] blessing, benediction; farewell speech; incantation or spell by a shaman. [<CT *alkïš]
- algïš [ahlgïš] quarrel, squabble.
- algïš-yöreel blessing, benediction; farewell speech.
- algïš- [ahlgïš-] to quarrel, to squabble.
- algït- to widen, to broaden, to expand, to make wide, broad.
- algïy [ahlgïy] small flat dish (used by hunters).
- alïkčï recipient; sadïp alïkčï buyer.
- alïksa- to want to take, buy; bo nomnu alïksap tur men I want to buy this book.
- alïksak self-interested, mercenary; alïksak kiži self-interested person; alïksak čoruk self-interest, mercenariness.
- alïksakčï profit-seeker, mercenary-minded person.
- alïksančïg desirable.
- alïksat- to make want to take, buy.
- alïm debt; retribution, repayment. [<CT *alïm]
- alïmna- to recover a debt.
- alïmnïg having debts, obligations.
- alïn face; alïn čok shameless; ïyadïr alïn čok shameless. [<CT *a:lïn]
- alïn- to take for oneself; sagïš alïn- to guess, to suspect, to surmise; sezik alïn- to become suspect. [<CT *alïn-]
- alïndïr-: sagïš alïndïr- to suggest; sezik alïndïr- to evoke suspicion. [<CT *alïndur-]
- alïs distant; end, aim, purpose; root, source; alïs küzel cherished wish. [LM alus]
- alïs- (alzïr) to to be taken; to fall in the hands of somebody; sookka alïs- to catch a cold, to catch a chill.
- alïš- (alčïr) to take together, to take each other; sös alïš- to promise to each other. [<CT *alïš-]
- alïš-beriš exchange.
- Altay cf. Alday the Altay mountains.
- am now; am-daa quite, already. [<CT *am]
- ama measure of cloth, whose length is equal to its width; list; parlaar ama quire, printer’s sheet. [LM ama]
- amadï head of the femur.
- amagayla- to put on a halter. [LM amaγaila-]
- amala- to measure cloth by its width. [LM amala-]
- amala- to promise, to swear. [LM amala-]
- amdan [ahmdan] the taste (of food). [LM amta(n)]
- amdan-čimden taste.
- amdannal- to be or become tasty, to have taste.
- amdannaldïr- to make tasty.
- amdannan- to taste, to sense the taste of; to regale oneself.
- amdannïg tasty, delicious; amdannïg čem tasty food.
- amdïï (~ amdïkï ~ amdïgï) the same, the very same; amdïï ool that very fellow; amdïï čaa not long ago, recently, just now; samolyot amdïï čaa keldi the airplane arrived just now; amdïï čïlïn in the next year; amdïï kiži my spouse, my wife, my husband (term used when referring to one’s spouse in his/her absence); amdïï kiži ažïldap turar my husband/wife is working.
- Amerikanïŋ Kattïškan Štattarï United States of America.
- amgï today’s, nowadays, current, present, contemporary; amgï üyede at present; amgï šagda nowadays; amgï čogaalčïlar contemporary writers.
- amï life (biology); amï čok lifeless; amï čok boydus inanimate nature. [LM ami(n)]
- amï-tïn life; amï-tïnïn al- to rescue, to save the life of; amï-tïnïn xaramnanma- to not spare the life of; amï-tïnïn artïnga kag- to risk one’s life.
- amï-tïnnïg alive.
- amï-xuu personal, private; ooŋ amï-xuu xeree-dir it is his/her own business; amï-xuuda, amï-xuuzunda personally, privately.
- amïday namesake. [LM amidai]
- amïdïra- to live, to exist. [LM amidura-]
- amïdïral life, existence. [LM amidural]
- amïlan- to be alive, to keep body and soul together, to subsist.
- amïlïg alive, living, animate, organic; amïlïg amïtan living creature; amïlïg boydus living nature, organic nature.
- amïr quiet, calm, placid; easy, not difficult; amïr-la-dïr be! peace onto you! amïr ažïl-dïr it is easy work; amïr eves not easy; amïr kiži placid person, easy-going person. [LM amur]
- amïr-mendi health, well-being; amïr-mendi aytïr- to wish good health, to greet; amïr-mendi soluš- to exchange greetings; amïr-mendiŋni aytïrdïm how are you doing? (lit. I have asked your health); amïr-mendi čok without greeting, impolite, rude. [LM amir-mendü]
- amïra- to rest, to console oneself, to take comfort; to rejoice, to enjoy, to be glad; sen kelgeniŋge aažok amïradïm I am very glad you have come. [LM amura-]
- amïrak dear, beloved. [LM amuraγ]
- amïral happiness; rest. [LM amural]
- amïral cf. avïral salvation, protection; mercy.
- amïrat- to make happy; to enjoy; bo bodal onu amïratkan this thought made him/her happy.
- amïrga cf. avïrga bugle for luring maral deer.
- amïrga-maŋgïs cf. amïrga-moos monster.
- amïrga-moos (mythical) monster. [LM aburγa]
- amïtan creature, animal; these all, those here, bunch; kandaay amïtan sen? what kind of creature are you?; azïral amïtannar domestic livestock; amïtannar aymaa the realm of animals; amïtan nomnarïŋ kančaar sen? what will you do with all those books of yours? [LM amitan]
- amza- to taste. [LM amsa-]
- ana well, then; ana at bolgan how terrible!
- anaa usual, ordinary, simple; okay, fine, well, just so; anaa, anaa okay okay, I got the point, hm; anaa karandažïŋ bar be? do you have an ordinary pencil?; anaa-la simply, just, without ceremony; bis anaa-la parkže kïlaštap čorduvus we just walked to the park (for no particular reason); anaa eves unusual, uncommon, extraordinary, special, not just so; sen anaa eves beer čedip keldiŋ you came here for a reason; anaa eves ulus dur siler, onu utpaŋar you are special people, don’t forget it; anaa prosto just because, just so; sen čüü deeš činči bile oškažïp turgan sen? anaa prosto why is it you and Pearl were kissing? just because; anaada usually.
- anaar cf. ïnaar to there, thither.
- anay [ahnay] kid, lamb; čaš anay young kid; ivi anay fawn.
- anay-kara darling, sweetie; anay-kara čažïndan from a tender age.
- anayla- of a goat to kid, of a deer to give birth to a fawn.
- anča cf. ïnča so much, this much.
- anča- cf. ïnča- to do thus.
- ančïg boring, irksome, bothersome, unpleasant, disagreeable, annoying; ungainly, clumsy; ančïg kiži nuisance, bore; ančïg kïlïn- to pester, to bother, to bore; to tease, to excite; ančïg čugaa unpleasant talk.
- ančïgzïn- to become angry
- ančïgzïndïr- to make angry, to annoy.
- anda cf. ïnda at him, her; there. [<CT *anda ~ *anta]
- andag cf. ïndag like that, thus. [<CT *andag ~ *antag]
- andazïn plow. [←Kh andis(an), LM anĵisu(n)]
- anïyak [ahnïyak] young; anïyaamda in my youth; anïyaaŋdan from the time of your youth; anïyaktar youth, the young people; sovyet anïyaktar the Soviet youth; anïyaktar organizaciyazï youth organisation.
- aŋ animal, game. [LM ang]
- aŋ-meŋ all kind of game, fauna.
- aŋaa (~ aa) thither, here; aŋaa užuražïr bis let’s meet here; aŋaa bar go thither.
- aŋčï hunter. [LM aŋči(n)]
- aŋčïgaš small animal.
- aŋdar- to turn, to turn over, to overturn, to topple over; to plough, to till; tonnu aŋdara daara- to turn a coat; čer aŋdar- to plough the soil. [<CT *agtar-]
- aŋgada- to lose one’s head, to be stupefied, puzzled, bwildered, perplexed, to be struck dumb; kortkaš aŋgaday ber- to be struck dumb from fear.
- aŋgadat- to cause to be stupefied, puzzled, bewildered; to stun.
- aŋgï apart from, separate from; except, besides; oon aŋgï, aŋgïda besides, in addition to; aŋgï-aŋgï various; ol törelderinden aŋgï čurttap turar s/he lives separate from his/her relatives. [LM anggi]
- aŋgï [ahŋgï] class; ažïlčïn aŋgï working class. [LM anggi]
- aŋgïla- to separate, to divide, to isolate, to cut off, to delimit; to distinguish, to discern, to make out.
- aŋgïlaaškïn separation, division, isolation, delimitation.
- aŋgïlat- to let separate, to divide, distinguish.
- aŋgïr a species of duck. [LM anggir]
- aŋmaar (~ ambar) granary. [←Rus ambar]
- aŋna- to hunt; adïgnï aŋnaarï bear hunt.
- aŋnaaškïn hunt.
- aŋnïg teeming with game animals; aŋnïg tayga forest teeming with game.
- aŋzak loving to hunt; hunting; aŋzak ït hunting hound.
- aŋzïrak loving to hunt.
- ap taking; cf. al- to take. [<CT *alïp]
- apar- (apaar) to appear; to become; to have to, to be necessary; ol baškï apargan s/he became leader; küs apargan it became autumn; sen čoruur apaar sen you must go; sen kelir apaar dïr sen you must come; emnedir apar- to have to be treated.
- appar- to bring. [< ap bar- <CT *alïp bar-]
- aptara box, chest. [LM abdara]
- ar cf. adïr wait!
- ar- to become meagre, to become thin. [<CT *ha:r-]
- ara the place between; distance; ooŋ arazïnda meanwhile; čïlgïnïŋ arazïnda among the horse herd; arazïn üzükte- to break mutually. [<CT *a:ra]
- araa thread (on a rifle). [LM araγa]
- ara-albatï subject (of a country).
- araatan predatory, predator; araatan aŋ predator; araatan kuš bird of prey. [LM araγatan, ariyatan]
- araatanzïg brutal, ruthless; araatanzïg dayzïn ruthless enemy; araatanzïg darlal brutal exploitation.
- araga liquor, wine, vodka. [LM araki(n)]
- aragala- to drink hard, to booze.
- aragalaaškïn hard drinking, alcoholism.
- aragalat- to treat to liquor; to make a drunkard of.
- aragazïrak loving to drink, inclined to drinking hard.
- aralaš- to mix, to mingle with, to associate with, to socialize with; to alternate, to take turns.
- aralaškak alternating, intermittently.
- aralaštïr- to let associate with; to let alternate.
- aralažïïškïn intercourse, interchange, alternation.
- aralïg different, dissimlar (e.g. of the harvest, grasses, squirrels in the tayga); bo čïlïn taraa aralïg-dïr this year the grain is not the same everywhere.
- aramayla- to ask to wait, to ask time for reflection.
- aramna- to stop, to cease, to discontinue, to come to an end.
- aramnïg satisfactory, passable, not too bad; poor, indifferent, not much of a.
- arat people; Mool Arat Respublika Mongolian People’s Republic. [LM arad]
- aray silently, quietly, scarcely; aray boorda, aray dep with difficulty, just so, hardly, barely. [LM arai]
- arbak handful.
- arbay barley. [LM arbai]
- arbïda- to increase, to become more; maldïŋ sanï arbïday bergen the number of livestock increased. [LM arbida-]
- arbïn abundant, plentiful, lavish, rich; arbïn ahš-čem lavish food; arbïn xöreŋgi abundant means. [LM arbin]
- arbïš silk.
- arga means, way, scheme, method; way-out, possibility; strategy; trick; ïndïg arga-bile in this way; köör arga means to see. [LM arγa]
- arga [ahrga] mountain forest. [<CT *arka]
- arga-arïg mountain forests and woods.
- arga-ïyaš mountain forests and trees, woods.
- arga-sïn mountain forests and ridges.
- arga-süme advice.
- argak [ahrgak] edge, selvage. [<CT *argak]
- argala- [ahrgala-] to go in or through the mountain forests.
- argala- to soothe (a child); to use a ruse, strategy. [LM arγala-]
- argalïg possible; argalïg bol- to be possible; argalïg bolza if possible.
- argamčï lasso. [LM argamĵi]
- argamčïla- to catch or hold with a lasso. [LM argamĵi]
- argan bad, worn out, emaciated, scraggy, skinny, meagre, thin.
- argar mountain sheep. [<CT *arkar]
- argažok without means, impossible.
- argï- to weave, to plait, to braid. [<CT *arku-]
- argï- to go, to ride, to travel, to journey.
- argïg woven or knitted fabric; embroidery.
- argïkčï weaver, knitter.
- argïkčïla- to work as a weaver, knitter.
- arğïmal woven, knitted; woven or knitted fabric; embroidery.
- arï northern slope of a mountain. [LM aru]
- arï bee; wasp; düktüg arï bumble-bee; arï öö wasp nest, beehive; honeycomb; arï ügee beehive. [<CT *a:rï]
- arï- to become pure, clean, clear. [<CT *arï-]
- arïg pure, clean, clear; arïg čüve ~ arïgže money. [<CT *arïg]
- arïg woods, forest. [<CT *arïg]
- arïk irrigation channel, irrigation ditch. [<CT *a:rïk]
- arïk basket. [LM aruγ]
- arïk cf. argan meagre. [<CT *a:ruk]
- arïl- (arlïr) to clear up, to clear oneself, to become clear, to disperse; xemniŋ dožu arlï bergen the river’s ice got cleared; ïš arlï bergen the smoke dispersed; aht arlï bergen the horse dashed away. [<CT *arïl-]
- arïn face; person (in grammar); page; arïn čok shameless. [cf. CT *a:lïn]
- arïn- (arnïr) to brandish, to wave, to raise; čuduruun arïn- to brandish one’s fists; dayaŋgïïš arïn- to brandish a stick.
- arïn-nüür face; conscience; arïn-nüür čok having no conscience.
- arïn-nüürlüg (~ nüürlüg) conscientious.
- arïnnïg with a face, -faced; kalbak arïnnïg broad-faced; tögerik arïnnïg round-faced.
- armiya army. [←Ru armija]
- art mountain pass. [<CT *art]
- art- to load, to load up. [<CT *a:rt-]
- art- [ahrt-] to remain, to be left (over); artïp kal- to stay, to remain. [<CT *art-]
- artta- to go through, to go over, to stride, to step over, to overstep, to climb or get over.
- artï back side; west side; bažïŋ artïnda behind the house. [<CT *a:rt]
- artïïškïn remainder, rest, remnant, vestige.
- artïk more, better, superior; surpluss, redundant, in excess; waisted, useless, unnecessary. [<CT *artuk]
- artïkšïl excess, surplus.
- artïnčï remainder, rest, remnant, vestige; waste products; (grammatical) particle.
- artïš juniper. [<CT *artuč]
- artïža- to fumigate with the smoke of juniper.
- artïžan- to fumigate oneself with the smoke of juniper; to smoke (tobacco).
- artïžat- to let fumigate with the smoke of juniper.
- arttïr more, over-; arttïr ber- to give more (than needed); arttïr küüset- to overfulfil, to exceed.
- arttïr- to let load.
- arttïr- [ahrttïr-] to let remain, to leave over. [<CT *artur-]
- arzay- to be steep. [LM arĵai-]
- arzïlaŋ [ahrzïlaŋ] lion. [<CT *arslan]
- aržaan water from a mineral spring. [←Rus aržan ←LM arasiyan]
- aržaŋ [ahržaŋ] strong liquor of the second distillation.
- aržïïl [ahržïïl] towel, handkerchief. [LM alčigur]
- aržïïn [ahržïïn] arshin (measure of length). [←Rus aršin]
- aržïmak [ahržïmak] leather wineskin (for liquor or kumys).
- ava mother.
- avakïm mommy.
- avaangïr [ahvaangïr] adroit, dexterous, deft, able, skillful; prompt, swift; smart, nimble, quick-fingered.
- avaansa promotion. [←Rus avans]
- avagay sir, madam. [LM abaqai]
- aval (< ap al) take it.
- avalïškï(lar) (~ avaškï(lar)) mother and child(ren).
- avay mommy, mum (term of address); avayïm mother! (exclamation of fear).
- avïra cf. azïra heavens!
- avïra-azïra goodness! heavens!
- avïral salvation, deliverance; protection; mercy; help; amnesty; seeŋ avïralïŋ-bile, seeŋ avïralïŋda thanks to you, owing to you. [LM abural]
- avïralda- to ask for, to beg; to take care of, to spare, to protect.
- avïraldïg beneficial, beneficient, offering help, protective; merciful; avïraldïg alday-taŋdïm my merciful Altay taiga; avïraldïg kiži person helping others.
- avïrar- (~ avïraŋna-) to be or become dishevelled, tousled, tattered.
- avïraš dishevelled, tattered, tousled, shaggy; avïraš baš dügü tousled hair.
- avïrga bugle for luring maral deer.
- avïrgan [ahvïrgan] flying squirrel.
- avïrganna- to hunt flying squirrels.
- avïyaas hypocrisy, slyness, pretence, sham. [LM abiyas]
- avïyaasta- to be hypocritical, cunning, to pretend, to feign.
- avïyaastan- to pretend, to feign; čüge avïyaastanïr sen? why are you pretending?
- avïyaastïg hypocritical, sly, insinuating.
- avïyaazïn cf. avïyaas hypocrisy, slyness, pretence, sham.
- avïyaazïnnan- cf. avïyaasta- to be hypocritical, cunning, to pretend, to feign.
- as ermine. [<CT *as]
- as a little bit. [<CT *a:z]
- as- to lose one’s way, to get lost. [<CT *a:z-]
- as- [ahs-] to hang, to suspend; to weigh. [<CT *as-]
- aska- [ahska-] to be lame, to limp. [<CT *aksa-]
- askak [ahskak] lame, limping. [<CT *aksak]
- askaŋna- to limp, to hobble; to hop on one leg.
- askaŋgïrla- cf. askaŋna- to limp, to hop on one leg.
- askï peg, rack, stand; shed, lean-to, awning; gallows, gibbet. [<CT *askï]
- askïg cf. askï peg, awning, gallows.
- askïm [ahskïm] obstinate, refractory, restive, fiery (of horses). [LM aγsum]
- askïmčï cf. askïm obstinate, restive.
- askïmna- of horses to be obstinate, refractory, restive, fiery; to gambol, to frisk. [LM aγsumla-]
- askïr stallion; male of an animal; askïr dagaa rooster; askïr kas gander; askïr xavan boar; askïr ït male dog; askïr öör čïlgï a herd of horses; askïr negey ton fur coat made of sheepskin (with long wool). [<CT *adgïr]
- askïr-čavaa mushroom.
- askïr-čavaala- to gather mushrooms.
- askïrlan- of a stallion to mate with a mare; to become sexually excited, horny.
- askïïš cf. askï peg, awning, gallows.
- aspagar unclenched (of the fists).
- aspak claw, paw; aspaanče kir- to fall into one’s claws.
- aspakta- to seize.
- aspan locust.
- aspay- to unclench, to part, to open (e.g. of the fingers).
- astïgïr slanting; astïgïr karaktar slanting eyes.
- astïk- to be lost, to get lost; to doze off, to forget oneself, to lose consciousness.
- astïk- [ahstïk-] to hang on to, to cling, to hang by, to hang down, to droop.
- astïn- to hang, to be hanging, to be suspended, to hang over; to hang oneself; čuruk xanada astïngan tur the map is hanging on the wall.
- astïnčak slanting (of the eyes); hanging, pendant; astïnčak kövürüg suspension bridge.
- astïr- to lead astray, to delude; oruktan astïr- to lead astray.
- astïr- [ahstïr-] to let hang, to make hang, to be hung up. [<CT *astïr-]
- aš hunger; hungry. [<CT *a:č]
- ahš-čem food. [<CT *aš]
- aš-čemnig cf. aštïg-čemnig having food; hospitable.
- aš-čüt famine, starvation, killing weather.
- aš- to pass, to cross, to go through; to surpass; to win, to overcome; (of the sun) to set; dag aš- to cross the mountains; bergelerni aš- to overcome difficulties; xün aža bergen the sun set; boskunče čüve ašpa- to eat nothing (nothing passes his throat). [<CT *a:š-]
- aš- [ahš-] to open; arïnnï aš- to open a page, to turn pages, to flip through. [<CT *ač-]
- ašak [aššak] husband; old man; ooŋ ašaa her husband; kokay ašak ~ končug ašak wolf. [cf. CT *abïčka]
- ašak-kaday married couple, spouses, man and wife; ašak-kaday boluš- to become husband and wife, to get married.
- ašak-kuryak (~ ašak-kuyak) married couple, spouses, man and wife.
- aškar-čemger- to feed; to treat, to regale.
- ašta- to be hungry. [<NE *ašta-]
- ašta- [ahšta-] to tidy, to clean, to sweep; to weed.
- aštat- to make hungry.
- aštïg-čemnig having food; hospitable.
- aštïr- to lose a bet, wager; to be defeated, to sustain a defeat.
- aštïr- [ahštïr-] to cause to open. [<CT *ačtur-]
- aštïrïïškïn loss; defeatism.
- aštïrïkčï defeatist.