B

From TyvaWiki
Revision as of 15:18, 23 January 2008 by Umay (talk | contribs)
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Etymological Legend
Ch Chinese
CT Common Turkic
Kh Khalkha Mongolian
Khak Khakas
LM Literary Mongolian
LT Literary Tibetan
NE Northeastern Turkic
Rus Russian
Skt Sanskrit
  • baalïk saddle shaped mountain.
  • baalïŋ enamel. [LM palang ←Ch]
  • baar liver; baar aarïï liver disease; baar ehdi diaphragm; baarï ažï- to be very upset; baarïnïŋ ödü bolgan dearly loved. [<CT *bagïr]
  • baarï frontside; dag baarï the front of a mountain; tayganïŋ baarïnda in the front part of the tayga; meeŋ baarïmda in front of me.
  • baarlïg having a liver (as the seat of the emotions); kara-baarlïg hard-hearted; sook-baarlïg cold-hearted; čïlïg baarlïg warm-hearted, kind. [<CT *bagïrlïg]
  • baartak counter.
  • baartïk apron. (←Rus fartuk ←Pol ←Ger Vortuch)
  • baarzïk cf. kara-baarzïk thrush, starling.
  • baarzïk pancreas gland. [<CT *bagïrsok]
  • baažï(zï) simulation, pretence; cunning, slyness, guile, craft; ruse; hint (to the answer of a riddle). [cf. LM bači]
  • bačïda- to hurry, to be in a hurry, to make haste, to rush; to fusss, to bustle; to worry or bother oneself; to become more ill; aarïg kiži bačïdap tur the patient’s condition worsened.
  • bačïdaaškïn serious condition, crisis.
  • bačïm urgent, pressing; hasty, hurried; bustling, given to fussing; strained, tense, difficult; sultry; confusion, turmoil, bustle; bačïm ažïl urgent work; bačïm čoruk urgent journey; bačïm üye difficult time. [LM bačim]
  • bačïmna- to hurry, to be in a hurry, to make haste, to rush; to fuss, to bustle; to worry or bother oneself. [cf. LM bačïmda-]
  • bačït sin, evil. [LM barčit ←LT]
  • badïla- [bahdïla] to vote; to approve, to confirm, to affirm; to register. [LM batula-]
  • badïlaaškïn [bahdïlaaškïn] vote; approval, confirmation; registration.
  • badïlal vote; approval, confirmation; (marriage) registration.
  • badïlaš- to vote together; to approve or confirm together; to register one’s marriage.
  • badïlažïïškïn (marriage) registration, marriage ceremony, wedding.
  • badïr- to bring down, to lower; to reduce; to degrade; to float; to perform a song; (of children) to cry; xuuŋnu kudukče badïr- to lower the pail in the well; sug badïr- to drain off water; örtek badïr- to lower the price; kudu badïr- to send down from the mountain into the valley, or downstream; badïrïvït če! come on, sing! [<CT *batur-]
  • badïrtïr- to let bring down, lower, reduce, degrade, float, sing.
  • badïtka- [bahdïtka-] to confirm. [LM batudqa-]
  • badïtkal confirmation, proof.
  • bag strap, thong, belt; lasso; tie, leash, tether; bag kur leather strap, leather belt; bagda on the leash, tether. [<CT *ba:g]
  • bagana column, pillar, post, pole. [LM baγana]
  • bagay [bahgay] bad, ugly; not sufficient, not satisfying; poor; bagay xeme bad boat; bagay ažïl unsatisfactory work; bagay agaar bad weather.
  • bagay-sogay [bahgay-sohgay] bad, unimportant.
  • bagla- to tie, to bind; snop bagla- to bind sheaves; xoldarïn bagla- to tie one’s hands. [<CT *ba:gla-]
  • baglaaš tie, strap; aht baglaažï horse reins.
  • baglakčï binder (of sheaves).
  • baglan- to tie oneself. [<CT *ba:glan-]
  • baglaš- to tie together; to be tied in a knot, (of a knot) to be tightened.
  • baglat- to let tie; to be tied. [<CT *ba:glan-]
  • bak [bahk] bad, evil; negligent; unfortunate; weak; bak kiži bad person; bak aažï bad habits; bak čaŋna- to treat badly; bakka sug- to defame, to villify.
  • bak-sok [bahk-sohk] unimportant, rather bad; bak-sok čüveler goods and chattels, belongings.
  • bakïla- [bakkïla-] to throw a glance, to peep in.
  • bakka-sokka hardly, barely.
  • baksïra- to become worse; to grow weak; to wear out, to be used up; agaar baksïraan the weather turned worse.
  • bakta- to scold, to abuse, to criticize, to slander, to discredit, to calumniate.
  • baktaa- [bahktaa-] to form, to be part of, to be a member of; komissiyanïŋ sostavïnga baktaap kir- to become member of the committee. [LM baγta-]
  • baktaaškïn the act of becoming a part or member of.
  • baktaaškïn swearing, bad language, slander, calumny.
  • baktat- to be scolded, slandered, discredited.
  • bala fault; harm, damage; bo seeŋ balaŋ this is your fault! balazï-bile through someone’s fault.
  • bala pestle.
  • bala graphite; that which stains (of metals). [LM bala]
  • bala- to erase, to blot out, to obliterate; to cross out, to strike out. [LM balala-]
  • balaaš eraser, rubber.
  • balalïg causing damage, harmful.
  • balalïg stained, soiled (of metals).
  • balančak small child.
  • balar slime, mire, silt. [cf. Khak balïr]
  • balar former, ex, old. [LM balar]
  • balara- to have aching muscles.
  • balaš- to obliterate one another.
  • balaš- to soil each other, to make each other dirty.
  • balat- to let erase, blot out; to let cross out, to strike out.
  • baldï [bahldï] axe. [<CT *balto, LM balta]
  • baldïr [bahldïr] calf of the leg; money; baldïrï dïŋzïg rich, prosperous, well-to-do. [<CT *baltïr]
  • balïg wound; scab; balïg kiži wounded person. [<CT *ba:lïg]
  • balïgla- to injure, to wound; of a wound to occur. [<NE *balïgla-]
  • balïglaaškïn wound, injury, wounding.
  • balïglat- to be wounded, to get wounded.
  • balïglattïr- to be wounded, to get wounded.
  • balïïrgan- to feel pain (of a wound), to be sensitive to pain.
  • balïk fish; sööktüg balïk ide (carp); balïk tïvïïškïn fishing, the catching of fish; balïk münü fish soup; balïk üzü fish oil; balïk üürgenezi fish roe. [<CT *ba:lïk]
  • balïkčï fisherman. [<CT *ba:lïkčï]
  • balïkta- to fish, to catch fish.
  • balïktïg rich in fish, teeming with fish; balïktïg xöl lake rich in fish. [<CT *ba:lïklïg]
  • bar there is, present; ïndïg dürüm bar there is such a regulation; mende ol nom bar I have that book. [<CT *ba:r]
  • bar [< baar] going; ahttïg ulus bar čïdïr the horsemen moved away. [< *barar]
  • bar- (baar) to go, to go a way, to leave, to part; -(I)p bar- auxiliary verb indicating ‘being in a situation’; -(I)p bar čït- to go to, to go away; men čoruy bardïm I left; aht maŋnap čoruy bargan the horse had run away; közülbeyn bar- to be invisible; kančap bardïŋ? what is the matter with you?; ašakka bar- (of a woman) to marry; bažï-bile bar- to be lacking, missing, lost; baardï s/he went. [<CT *bar-]
  • bar-čok scanty, small, trifle.
  • bar-čoktug scanty, small, trifle.
  • bara fish-trap. [cf. Khak para]
  • baraan goods, stuff, ware, merchandise. [LM baraγa(n)]
  • baraan outline, contours, silhouette; baraan bol- to serve; čonunga baaraan bol- to serve the people. [LM baraγa(n)]
  • baraanna- to go to buy goods.
  • baraanna- to watch, to observe.
  • baraban drum. [←Rus baraban]
  • baraskan poor person, pauper; inhabitant.
  • barba bag of goat leather.
  • bardam impudent, coarse; arrogant, conceited, presumptious; irascible. [LM bardam]
  • bardamna- to be arrogant, conceited; to boast of one’s strength (in games, wrestling). [LM bardamna-]
  • barï presence, availability, on hand, cash; akšanïŋ barï cash money; erge-žok čugula baydaldarnïŋ barï the presence of indispensable conditions.
  • barïïn western; right-winged (politics). [LM baraγun]
  • barïk almost. [LM baruγ]
  • barïmdaa base, basis; reason, grounds, cause; proof, argument; evidence, certificate; kandïg-daa barïmdaa čokka without any reason; barïmdaaï čül? on what grounds?; škola dooskanïnïŋ barïmdaazï a certificate of having completed school. [LM barimta]
  • barïmdaala- to be based or founded on; to observe, to keep to, to take into account, to stick to; dürümnü barïmdaala- to observe the rules. [LM barimtala-]
  • bas- [bahs-] to press; to suppress, to repress; to destroy, to obliterate; to tread, to step; to amble; to pull or press the trigger, to shoot; kattïŋ suun sï bas- to squeeze out the juice of berries; demdek bas- to stamp, to brand; bazar aht ambler; bazar čüve pistol. [<CT *bas-]
  • baska hammer.
  • baskaktan- [bahskaktan-] to sit cross-legged.
  • baskïïš step, footstep; pedal; key; metal or horn badge (for fastening the seat to the saddle frame).
  • baskïlaš- to be heaped or piled up, to be loaded with.
  • baskïlaštïr- to heap up, to pile, to load with.
  • bastïg-: xaram bastïg- to have a nightmare.
  • bastïr- to oppress, to lower; to abuse; to be oppressed; to thresh (grain); to step; to amble. [<CT *bastur-]
  • baš [bahš] head; top, summit; end, tip; ear (of grain); head (counter for livestock); beginning, origin, source; -NIŋ bažïnda on top of, at the head of; bažïndan from the beginning; sigen bažï ear of grass; dag bažï mountain top; xem bažï the upstream part of a river; baš teyi crown of the head; baš söögü skull; baš šüürü comb; baš muŋgaš dead end, situation with no way out. [<CT *baš]
  • baš-tenider puzzle, conundrum.
  • baška [bahška] besides, except for; senden baška except for you; boordan baška except for its being. [<CT *baška]
  • baškala- to separate, to isolate.
  • baškalaaškïn separation, isolation, section division.
  • baškalan- to get rid of, to shake off, to throw off.
  • baškalančak separate, isolated from.
  • baškalandïr- to separate, to isolate.
  • baškar- [bahškar-] to manage, to regulate, to put right; to equip, to fit out (for a journey); to steer; kudumču šimčeeškinin baškar- to regulate the trafic; korabldi baškar- to steer the ship. [<CT *baškar-]
  • baškarïkčï manager; leader.
  • baškart- to let manage, regulate, equip, steer.
  • baškï [bahškï] teacher. [<CT *baxšï, cf. LM baγsi ←Ch]
  • baškï first; front-, anterior; initial.
  • baškïla- to teach, to educate.
  • baškïlaaškïn education.
  • bašta- to lead, to direct, to govern, to be at the head of, to guide; baštaar organnar authorities; baštaar čer government. [<CT *bašla-]
  • baštak [bahštak] witty, humerous, comic; joke, humour; joker, jester. [<CT *baštak]
  • baštaktan- to make jokes, to tease.
  • baštaktanïš- to tell jokes to one another.
  • baštal- to be in the ear, to form ears (of grass).
  • baštalga guidance, leadership.
  • baštaŋgï [bahštaŋgï] bridal veil.
  • baštat- to entrust the leadership.
  • baštay for the first time; eŋ-ne baštaygï very first, initial.
  • baštïg with a head, headed; with a leader; wise. [<CT *bašlïg]
  • baštïŋ [bahštïŋ] leader, head; the leader (in a herd); aymaktïŋ baštïŋï leader of the clan.
  • baštïŋčï leader, chief; ažïlčï čonnuŋ baštïŋčïzï leader of the working people; klass baštïŋčï baškïzï class teacher.
  • bat- [baht-] to go down, to descend, to plunge, to sink, to flow; kudu bat- to walk downstream. [<CT *bat-]
  • bay rich; a rich person; čuduruk bay rich farmer (cf. Rus kulak). [<CT *ba:y]
  • bayaatan (~ bayat) rich person.
  • baybaŋ garrulous, talkative; talkativeness, garrulity; unduly familiar (behaviour).
  • baydal position, status, state, condition, circumstance, situation. [LM bayidal]
  • baydaldïg situated, located, being in a position; berge baydaldïg being in a difficult position; eki baydaldïg being in a good position.
  • bayï- to be or become rich. [<CT *ba:yu-]
  • bayïïrga- to take pride in one’s wealth, to boast. [LM bayarqa-]
  • bayïr festivity; greeting, welcome; bayïr čedir- to welcome, to greet, to congratulate. [LM bayar]
  • bayïrla- to celebrate; to greet. [LM bayarla-]
  • bayïrlal holiday, festivity. [LM bayarlal]
  • bayïrlïg festive, ceremonial; greeting, welcoming; goodbye; bayïrlïg xural ceremonial meeting; bayïrlïg telegramma welcoming telegram; bayïrlïg ešter! goodbye, friends! [cf. LM bayartai]
  • bayïsaa- (~ baysaa-) to interrogate, to question. [LM baičaγa-]
  • bayïsaakčï (~ baysaakčï) investigator. [LM baičaγaγči]
  • bayïsaalga (~ baysaalga) interrogation, examination. [LM baičağalğa]
  • bayïsaat- to be interrogated.
  • bayït- to make rich. [<CT *ba:yut-]
  • bayla- to come to an end, to become empty (of a glass).
  • baylak rich; richness, wealth; resources, treasures; baylak čurt rich land; boydus baylaktarï natural resources; materialdïg baylaktar material resources; ištiki baylaktarnï mobilizastaarï mobilisation of internal resources; kazïmal baylaktar useful resources.
  • baylaŋ fry, young fish.
  • baytïk not only. [cf. LM baituγai]
  • bayza boundary post.
  • baza [bahza] and, still, more, yet, another, already; saazïn baza karandaš paper and pencil; baza bir kiži keldi another person came; meŋee baza nomdan bir ber give me yet another book. [LM basa]
  • bazïm [bahzïm] step.
  • bazïmča [bahzïmča] insult, abuse. [LM basumji]
  • bazïmčala- [bahzïmčala-] to humiliate, to abase, to insult, to offend, to abuse; to mock, to jeer at; to consider weak, feeble; ol meni bazïmčalaaš šïdïraaga utturupkan s/he beat me at chess and considered me weak.
  • bazïn- (bastïr) to humiliate, to abase, to insult, to offend, to mock, to jeer at. [<CT *basïn-]
  • bazïr- to press. [<CT *basur-]
  • bazïtkïïš metal or horn badge (for fastening the seat to the saddle frame).
  • baža brother-in-law (wife’s sister’s husband). [<CT *ba:ča]
  • bažalaš- to be or become brothers-in-law.
  • bažalïškïlar (~ bažaškïlar) brothers-in-law (husbands of sisters).
  • bažï-kurlug index finger (in games).
  • bažïŋ house, log hut, building; prison, jail; škola bažïŋï school building; bažïŋ adrezi home address; bažïŋ xerekselderi household utensils; bažïŋga kir- to go to prison; bažïŋ kižizi prisoner, inmate. [LM baising]
  • bažïŋna- to be in prison, to be locked up in jail.
  • bažïŋnan- to own a house, building.
  • bažïŋnat- to get locked up in prison.
  • be mare. [<CT *be:]
  • be question particle.
  • bedi- to become high, to rise, to be raised. [<CT *bedü-]
  • bedik high, tall; height, mountain; bedik dag high mountain; bedik kiži tall person; bedik ün high voice. [<CT *bedik]
  • bedit- to raise, to heighten, to lift; sugnuŋ deŋnelin bedit- to raise the water level. [<CT *bedüt-]
  • beer hither, here; since; beer kel come here; nomnarnï beer ekkel bring the books here; ïŋay-beer thither and hither; ol üyden beer since that time; oon beer since then; dagnïŋ beer iyi the slope on this side of the mountain. [<CT *be:rü]
  • beg beg (historical title); father-in-law; husband’s elder brother. [<CT *beg]
  • bege [behke] Indian ink. [LM beke ←Ch]
  • bege [behke] blight, smut (a crop disease).
  • begele- (of cereals) to be affected by blight, smut.
  • bek [behk] chains, fetters. [<CT *bek]
  • bekte- to consolidate, to strengthen, to fasten. [<CT *bekle-]
  • bekteg oppression.
  • bektel (~ bektelge) fetters; yoke, oppression; captivity; kolonialdïg bektel colonial yoke.
  • bekten- to hold on to, to press oneself against, to strengthen. [<CT *beklen-]
  • bektet- to let consolidate, strengthen, fasten. [<CT *beklet-]
  • bel waist; slope (at the foot of a mountain). [<CT *be:l]
  • bel salmon-trout. [<NE *bel]
  • bel-keš (~ bel-kežik) lower part of the body.
  • belde- to go past the mountain slope.
  • belde- to fish for salmon-trout.
  • beldir [behldir] confluence, crossroads, junction; knot; xem beldiri confluence of rivers; oruk beldirinde at the crossroads. [<CT *beltir]
  • beldirleš- (of rivers or roads) to come together, to join, to form a confluence, junction.
  • belek gift, present; belekke ber- to give as a present. [LM beleg]
  • belen easy; ready. [LM belen]
  • belen-selen that easily; ol belen-selen utpas s/he won’t forget so easily. [LM belen-ĵelen]
  • beleŋgiš mountain terrace.
  • beletke- to prepare; to acquire, to purchase; bažïŋnï kïška udur beletke- to prepare the house for winter. [LM beledke-]
  • beletkel purveyence, procurement; preparation, acquirement; beletkel punktuzu purveying centre, procurement station. [LM beledkel]
  • beletken- to prepare oneself.
  • beliŋči afraid, scared. [<CT *beliŋči]
  • beliŋne- to run up to, to jump; to give a start; to give a shriek. [<CT *beliŋle-]
  • beliŋnet- to make afraid, to scare.
  • ber- (beer) to give; bo nomnu meŋee ber give me this book; sös ber- to give one’s word; čöpšeerel ber- to give permission; üleger ber- to give an example; -A/-I/-y ber- (inchoative auxiliary); bižiy berdim I started writing; -(I)p ber- (benefactive auxiliary); meŋee adïŋ čugaalap ber tell me your name; beeriniiŋ padeži dative case. [<CT *be:r-]
  • berdin- to give oneself up, to surrender; to be given.
  • berdingen true, loyal, devoted.
  • berdir- to transfer to, to hand down, to forward, to let give; čagaanï akïmdan berdirdim I forwarded the writing through my elder brother. [<CT *be:rdür-]
  • berge [behrge] heavy, difficult; hardship, trouble. [LM berke]
  • bergede- to be in difficulties, to find difficulty in; to become difficult, hard, complicated. [LM berked-]
  • bergedet- to make difficult, hard, complicated.
  • berimče blessing, boon; donation.
  • berimčelig beneficial, abundant; generous, liberal; berimčelig čay a lavish summer.
  • beriš- to touch; to bother; to tease; bo nomnar-bile berišpeŋer don’t you touch these books; ït-bile berišpe don’t tease the dog. [<CT *beriš-]
  • bert [behrt] (a place) difficult to pass. [<CT *berk]
  • bert- [behrt-] to mutilate, to cripple, to maim. [<CT *bert-]
  • berten this morning. [< bo erten]
  • bertik mutilation, maiming; dislocation (of a joint); break, fracture (of a limb).
  • berttin- to be maimed, injured. [<CT *bertin-]
  • berttindir- to maim.
  • bes a species of edible bulb (Erythronium). [<NE *bes]
  • bes gland; čaraa bezi salivary gland [<CT *be:z]
  • bestig-baarzïk pancreas.
  • beš five; beški fifth. [<CT *be:š]
  • beš-adar rifle.
  • beti [behti] this side; front, before; xem betinde at this side of the river; betinge near, on this side of; šuugaar betinde as concerns gossip, with respect to gossip. [Tofa beht]
  • bezerek insufficient, inadequate; premature, born prematurely; defective; bezerek kïl- to do inadequately, to leave uncompleted. [LM besereg]
  • bezin even, yet; ol bezin kelbeen-dir s/he has not come yet. [Tofa bezin]
  • beželee(n) five together, the five of, fivesome.
  • bežen fifty; bežengi fiftieth. [<NE *beš + *on]
  • bežennig being fifty years of age.