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Etymological Legend
Ch Chinese
CT Common Turkic
Kh Khalkha Mongolian
Khak Khakas
LM Literary Mongolian
LT Literary Tibetan
NE Northeastern Turkic
Rus Russian
Skt Sanskrit
  • baalïk saddle shaped mountain.
  • baalïŋ enamel. [LM palang ←Ch]
  • baar liver; baar aarïï liver disease; baar ehdi diaphragm; baarï ažï- to be very upset; baarïnïŋ ödü bolgan dearly loved. [<CT *bagïr]
  • baarï frontside; dag baarï the front of a mountain; tayganïŋ baarïnda in the front part of the tayga; meeŋ baarïmda in front of me.
  • baarlïg having a liver (as the seat of the emotions); kara-baarlïg hard-hearted; sook-baarlïg cold-hearted; čïlïg baarlïg warm-hearted, kind. [<CT *bagïrlïg]
  • baartak counter.
  • baartïk apron. (←Rus fartuk ←Pol ←Ger Vortuch)
  • baarzïk cf. kara-baarzïk thrush, starling.
  • baarzïk pancreas gland. [<CT *bagïrsok]
  • baažï(zï) simulation, pretence; cunning, slyness, guile, craft; ruse; hint (to the answer of a riddle). [cf. LM bači]
  • bačïda- to hurry, to be in a hurry, to make haste, to rush; to fusss, to bustle; to worry or bother oneself; to become more ill; aarïg kiži bačïdap tur the patient’s condition worsened.
  • bačïdaaškïn serious condition, crisis.
  • bačïm urgent, pressing; hasty, hurried; bustling, given to fussing; strained, tense, difficult; sultry; confusion, turmoil, bustle; bačïm ažïl urgent work; bačïm čoruk urgent journey; bačïm üye difficult time. [LM bačim]
  • bačïmna- to hurry, to be in a hurry, to make haste, to rush; to fuss, to bustle; to worry or bother oneself. [cf. LM bačïmda-]
  • bačït sin, evil. [LM barčit ←LT]
  • badïla- [bahdïla] to vote; to approve, to confirm, to affirm; to register. [LM batula-]
  • badïlaaškïn [bahdïlaaškïn] vote; approval, confirmation; registration.
  • badïlal vote; approval, confirmation; (marriage) registration.
  • badïlaš- to vote together; to approve or confirm together; to register one’s marriage.
  • badïlažïïškïn (marriage) registration, marriage ceremony, wedding.
  • badïr- to bring down, to lower; to reduce; to degrade; to float; to perform a song; (of children) to cry; xuuŋnu kudukče badïr- to lower the pail in the well; sug badïr- to drain off water; örtek badïr- to lower the price; kudu badïr- to send down from the mountain into the valley, or downstream; badïrïvït če! come on, sing! [<CT *batur-]
  • badïrtïr- to let bring down, lower, reduce, degrade, float, sing.
  • badïtka- [bahdïtka-] to confirm. [LM batudqa-]
  • badïtkal confirmation, proof.
  • bag strap, thong, belt; lasso; tie, leash, tether; bag kur leather strap, leather belt; bagda on the leash, tether. [<CT *ba:g]
  • bagana column, pillar, post, pole. [LM baγana]
  • bagay [bahgay] bad, ugly; not sufficient, not satisfying; poor; bagay xeme bad boat; bagay ažïl unsatisfactory work; bagay agaar bad weather.
  • bagay-sogay [bahgay-sohgay] bad, unimportant.
  • bagla- to tie, to bind; snop bagla- to bind sheaves; xoldarïn bagla- to tie one’s hands. [<CT *ba:gla-]
  • baglaaš tie, strap; aht baglaažï horse reins.
  • baglakčï binder (of sheaves).
  • baglan- to tie oneself. [<CT *ba:glan-]
  • baglaš- to tie together; to be tied in a knot, (of a knot) to be tightened.
  • baglat- to let tie; to be tied. [<CT *ba:glan-]
  • bak [bahk] bad, evil; negligent; unfortunate; weak; bak kiži bad person; bak aažï bad habits; bak čaŋna- to treat badly; bakka sug- to defame, to villify.
  • bak-sok [bahk-sohk] unimportant, rather bad; bak-sok čüveler goods and chattels, belongings.
  • bakïla- [bakkïla-] to throw a glance, to peep in.
  • bakka-sokka hardly, barely.
  • baksïra- to become worse; to grow weak; to wear out, to be used up; agaar baksïraan the weather turned worse.
  • bakta- to scold, to abuse, to criticize, to slander, to discredit, to calumniate.
  • baktaa- [bahktaa-] to form, to be part of, to be a member of; komissiyanïŋ sostavïnga baktaap kir- to become member of the committee. [LM baγta-]
  • baktaaškïn the act of becoming a part or member of.
  • baktaaškïn swearing, bad language, slander, calumny.
  • baktat- to be scolded, slandered, discredited.
  • bala fault; harm, damage; bo seeŋ balaŋ this is your fault! balazï-bile through someone’s fault.
  • bala pestle.
  • bala graphite; that which stains (of metals). [LM bala]
  • bala- to erase, to blot out, to obliterate; to cross out, to strike out. [LM balala-]
  • balaaš eraser, rubber.
  • balalïg causing damage, harmful.
  • balalïg stained, soiled (of metals).
  • balančak small child.
  • balar slime, mire, silt. [cf. Khak balïr]
  • balar former, ex, old. [LM balar]
  • balara- to have aching muscles.
  • balaš- to obliterate one another.
  • balaš- to soil each other, to make each other dirty.
  • balat- to let erase, blot out; to let cross out, to strike out.
  • baldï [bahldï] axe. [<CT *balto, LM balta]
  • baldïr [bahldïr] calf of the leg; money; baldïrï dïŋzïg rich, prosperous, well-to-do. [<CT *baltïr]
  • balïg wound; scab; balïg kiži wounded person. [<CT *ba:lïg]
  • balïgla- to injure, to wound; of a wound to occur. [<NE *balïgla-]
  • balïglaaškïn wound, injury, wounding.
  • balïglat- to be wounded, to get wounded.
  • balïglattïr- to be wounded, to get wounded.
  • balïïrgan- to feel pain (of a wound), to be sensitive to pain.
  • balïk fish; sööktüg balïk ide (carp); balïk tïvïïškïn fishing, the catching of fish; balïk münü fish soup; balïk üzü fish oil; balïk üürgenezi fish roe. [<CT *ba:lïk]
  • balïkčï fisherman. [<CT *ba:lïkčï]
  • balïkta- to fish, to catch fish.
  • balïktïg rich in fish, teeming with fish; balïktïg xöl lake rich in fish. [<CT *ba:lïklïg]
  • bar there is, present; ïndïg dürüm bar there is such a regulation; mende ol nom bar I have that book. [<CT *ba:r]
  • bar [< baar] going; ahttïg ulus bar čïdïr the horsemen moved away. [< *barar]
  • bar- (baar) to go, to go a way, to leave, to part; -(I)p bar- auxiliary verb indicating ‘being in a situation’; -(I)p bar čït- to go to, to go away; men čoruy bardïm I left; aht maŋnap čoruy bargan the horse had run away; közülbeyn bar- to be invisible; kančap bardïŋ? what is the matter with you?; ašakka bar- (of a woman) to marry; bažï-bile bar- to be lacking, missing, lost; baardï s/he went. [<CT *bar-]
  • bar-čok scanty, small, trifle.
  • bar-čoktug scanty, small, trifle.
  • bara fish-trap. [cf. Khak para]
  • baraan goods, stuff, ware, merchandise. [LM baraγa(n)]
  • baraan outline, contours, silhouette; baraan bol- to serve; čonunga baaraan bol- to serve the people. [LM baraγa(n)]
  • baraanna- to go to buy goods.
  • baraanna- to watch, to observe.
  • baraban drum. [←Rus baraban]
  • baraskan poor person, pauper; inhabitant.
  • barba bag of goat leather.
  • bardam impudent, coarse; arrogant, conceited, presumptious; irascible. [LM bardam]
  • bardamna- to be arrogant, conceited; to boast of one’s strength (in games, wrestling). [LM bardamna-]
  • barï presence, availability, on hand, cash; akšanïŋ barï cash money; erge-žok čugula baydaldarnïŋ barï the presence of indispensable conditions.
  • barïïn western; right-winged (politics). [LM baraγun]
  • barïk almost. [LM baruγ]
  • barïmdaa base, basis; reason, grounds, cause; proof, argument; evidence, certificate; kandïg-daa barïmdaa čokka without any reason; barïmdaaï čül? on what grounds?; škola dooskanïnïŋ barïmdaazï a certificate of having completed school. [LM barimta]
  • barïmdaala- to be based or founded on; to observe, to keep to, to take into account, to stick to; dürümnü barïmdaala- to observe the rules. [LM barimtala-]
  • bas- [bahs-] to press; to suppress, to repress; to destroy, to obliterate; to tread, to step; to amble; to pull or press the trigger, to shoot; kattïŋ suun sï bas- to squeeze out the juice of berries; demdek bas- to stamp, to brand; bazar aht ambler; bazar čüve pistol. [<CT *bas-]
  • baska hammer.
  • baskaktan- [bahskaktan-] to sit cross-legged.
  • baskïïš step, footstep; pedal; key; metal or horn badge (for fastening the seat to the saddle frame).
  • baskïlaš- to be heaped or piled up, to be loaded with.
  • baskïlaštïr- to heap up, to pile, to load with.
  • bastïg-: xaram bastïg- to have a nightmare.
  • bastïr- to oppress, to lower; to abuse; to be oppressed; to thresh (grain); to step; to amble. [<CT *bastur-]
  • baš [bahš] head; top, summit; end, tip; ear (of grain); head (counter for livestock); beginning, origin, source; -NIŋ bažïnda on top of, at the head of; bažïndan from the beginning; sigen bažï ear of grass; dag bažï mountain top; xem bažï the upstream part of a river; baš teyi crown of the head; baš söögü skull; baš šüürü comb; baš muŋgaš dead end, situation with no way out. [<CT *baš]
  • baš-tenider puzzle, conundrum.
  • baška [bahška] besides, except for; senden baška except for you; boordan baška except for its being. [<CT *baška]
  • baškala- to separate, to isolate.
  • baškalaaškïn separation, isolation, section division.
  • baškalan- to get rid of, to shake off, to throw off.
  • baškalančak separate, isolated from.
  • baškalandïr- to separate, to isolate.
  • baškar- [bahškar-] to manage, to regulate, to put right; to equip, to fit out (for a journey); to steer; kudumču šimčeeškinin baškar- to regulate the trafic; korabldi baškar- to steer the ship. [<CT *baškar-]
  • baškarïkčï manager; leader.
  • baškart- to let manage, regulate, equip, steer.
  • baškï [bahškï] teacher. [<CT *baxšï, cf. LM baγsi ←Ch]
  • baškï first; front-, anterior; initial.
  • baškïla- to teach, to educate.
  • baškïlaaškïn education.
  • bašta- to lead, to direct, to govern, to be at the head of, to guide; baštaar organnar authorities; baštaar čer government. [<CT *bašla-]
  • baštak [bahštak] witty, humerous, comic; joke, humour; joker, jester. [<CT *baštak]
  • baštaktan- to make jokes, to tease.
  • baštaktanïš- to tell jokes to one another.
  • baštal- to be in the ear, to form ears (of grass).
  • baštalga guidance, leadership.
  • baštaŋgï [bahštaŋgï] bridal veil.
  • baštat- to entrust the leadership.
  • baštay for the first time; eŋ-ne baštaygï very first, initial.
  • baštïg with a head, headed; with a leader; wise. [<CT *bašlïg]
  • baštïŋ [bahštïŋ] leader, head; the leader (in a herd); aymaktïŋ baštïŋï leader of the clan.
  • baštïŋčï leader, chief; ažïlčï čonnuŋ baštïŋčïzï leader of the working people; klass baštïŋčï baškïzï class teacher.
  • bat- [baht-] to go down, to descend, to plunge, to sink, to flow; kudu bat- to walk downstream. [<CT *bat-]
  • bay rich; a rich person; čuduruk bay rich farmer (cf. Rus kulak). [<CT *ba:y]
  • bayaatan (~ bayat) rich person.
  • baybaŋ garrulous, talkative; talkativeness, garrulity; unduly familiar (behaviour).
  • baydal position, status, state, condition, circumstance, situation. [LM bayidal]
  • baydaldïg situated, located, being in a position; berge baydaldïg being in a difficult position; eki baydaldïg being in a good position.
  • bayï- to be or become rich. [<CT *ba:yu-]
  • bayïïrga- to take pride in one’s wealth, to boast. [LM bayarqa-]
  • bayïr festivity; greeting, welcome; bayïr čedir- to welcome, to greet, to congratulate. [LM bayar]
  • bayïrla- to celebrate; to greet. [LM bayarla-]
  • bayïrlal holiday, festivity. [LM bayarlal]
  • bayïrlïg festive, ceremonial; greeting, welcoming; goodbye; bayïrlïg xural ceremonial meeting; bayïrlïg telegramma welcoming telegram; bayïrlïg ešter! goodbye, friends! [cf. LM bayartai]
  • bayïsaa- (~ baysaa-) to interrogate, to question. [LM baičaγa-]
  • bayïsaakčï (~ baysaakčï) investigator. [LM baičaγaγči]
  • bayïsaalga (~ baysaalga) interrogation, examination. [LM baičağalğa]
  • bayïsaat- to be interrogated.
  • bayït- to make rich. [<CT *ba:yut-]
  • bayla- to come to an end, to become empty (of a glass).
  • baylak rich; richness, wealth; resources, treasures; baylak čurt rich land; boydus baylaktarï natural resources; materialdïg baylaktar material resources; ištiki baylaktarnï mobilizastaarï mobilisation of internal resources; kazïmal baylaktar useful resources.
  • baylaŋ fry, young fish.
  • baytïk not only. [cf. LM baituγai]
  • bayza boundary post.
  • baza [bahza] and, still, more, yet, another, already; saazïn baza karandaš paper and pencil; baza bir kiži keldi another person came; meŋee baza nomdan bir ber give me yet another book. [LM basa]
  • bazïm [bahzïm] step.
  • bazïmča [bahzïmča] insult, abuse. [LM basumji]
  • bazïmčala- [bahzïmčala-] to humiliate, to abase, to insult, to offend, to abuse; to mock, to jeer at; to consider weak, feeble; ol meni bazïmčalaaš šïdïraaga utturupkan s/he beat me at chess and considered me weak.
  • bazïn- (bastïr) to humiliate, to abase, to insult, to offend, to mock, to jeer at. [<CT *basïn-]
  • bazïr- to press. [<CT *basur-]
  • bazïtkïïš metal or horn badge (for fastening the seat to the saddle frame).
  • baža brother-in-law (wife’s sister’s husband). [<CT *ba:ča]
  • bažalaš- to be or become brothers-in-law.
  • bažalïškïlar (~ bažaškïlar) brothers-in-law (husbands of sisters).
  • bažï-kurlug index finger (in games).
  • bažïŋ house, log hut, building; prison, jail; škola bažïŋï school building; bažïŋ adrezi home address; bažïŋ xerekselderi household utensils; bažïŋga kir- to go to prison; bažïŋ kižizi prisoner, inmate. [LM baising]
  • bažïŋna- to be in prison, to be locked up in jail.
  • bažïŋnan- to own a house, building.
  • bažïŋnat- to get locked up in prison.
  • be mare. [<CT *be:]
  • be question particle.
  • bedi- to become high, to rise, to be raised. [<CT *bedü-]
  • bedik high, tall; height, mountain; bedik dag high mountain; bedik kiži tall person; bedik ün high voice. [<CT *bedik]
  • bedit- to raise, to heighten, to lift; sugnuŋ deŋnelin bedit- to raise the water level. [<CT *bedüt-]
  • beer hither, here; since; beer kel come here; nomnarnï beer ekkel bring the books here; ïŋay-beer thither and hither; ol üyden beer since that time; oon beer since then; dagnïŋ beer iyi the slope on this side of the mountain. [<CT *be:rü]
  • beergi since; šagdan beergi, ür üyeden beergi long time since; čooktan beergi recently.
  • beerle- to approach, to come near (to the speaker).
  • beerlet- to draw near.
  • beg beg (historical title); father-in-law; husband’s elder brother. [<CT *beg]
  • bege [behke] Indian ink. [LM beke ←Ch]
  • bege [behke] blight, smut (a crop disease).
  • begele- (of cereals) to be affected by blight, smut.
  • bek [behk] strong; chains, fetters. [<CT *bek]
  • bekte- to consolidate, to strengthen, to fasten. [<CT *bekle-]
  • bekteg oppression.
  • bektel (~ bektelge) fetters; yoke, oppression; captivity; kolonialdïg bektel colonial yoke.
  • bekten- to hold on to, to press oneself against, to strengthen. [<CT *beklen-]
  • bektet- to let consolidate, strengthen, fasten. [<CT *beklet-]
  • bel waist; slope (at the foot of a mountain). [<CT *be:l]
  • bel salmon-trout. [<NE *bel]
  • bel-keš (~ bel-kežik) lower part of the body.
  • belde- to go past the mountain slope.
  • belde- to fish for salmon-trout.
  • beldir [behldir] confluence, crossroads, junction; knot; xem beldiri confluence of rivers; oruk beldirinde at the crossroads. [<CT *beltir]
  • beldirleš- (of rivers or roads) to come together, to join, to form a confluence, junction.
  • belek gift, present; belekke ber- to give as a present. [LM beleg]
  • belen easy; ready. [LM belen]
  • belen-selen that easily; ol belen-selen utpas s/he won’t forget so easily. [LM belen-ĵelen]
  • beleŋgiš mountain terrace.
  • beletke- to prepare; to acquire, to purchase; bažïŋnï kïška udur beletke- to prepare the house for winter. [LM beledke-]
  • beletkel purveyence, procurement; preparation, acquirement; beletkel punktuzu purveying centre, procurement station. [LM beledkel]
  • beletken- to prepare oneself.
  • beliŋči afraid, scared. [<CT *beliŋči]
  • beliŋne- to run up to, to jump; to give a start; to give a shriek. [<CT *beliŋle-]
  • beliŋnet- to make afraid, to scare.
  • ber- (beer) to give; bo nomnu meŋee ber give me this book; sös ber- to give one’s word; čöpšeerel ber- to give permission; üleger ber- to give an example; -A/-I/-y ber- (inchoative auxiliary); bižiy berdim I started writing; -(I)p ber- (benefactive auxiliary); meŋee adïŋ čugaalap ber tell me your name; beeriniiŋ padeži dative case. [<CT *be:r-]
  • berdin- to give oneself up, to surrender; to be given.
  • berdingen true, loyal, devoted.
  • berdir- to transfer to, to hand down, to forward, to let give; čagaanï akïmdan berdirdim I forwarded the writing through my elder brother. [<CT *be:rdür-]
  • berge [behrge] heavy, difficult; hardship, trouble. [LM berke]
  • bergede- to be in difficulties, to find difficulty in; to become difficult, hard, complicated. [LM berked-]
  • bergedet- to make difficult, hard, complicated.
  • berimče blessing, boon; donation.
  • berimčelig beneficial, abundant; generous, liberal; berimčelig čay a lavish summer.
  • beriš- to touch; to bother; to tease; bo nomnar-bile berišpeŋer don’t you touch these books; ït-bile berišpe don’t tease the dog. [<CT *beriš-]
  • bert [behrt] (a place) difficult to pass. [<CT *berk]
  • bert- [behrt-] to mutilate, to cripple, to maim. [<CT *bert-]
  • berten this morning. [< bo erten]
  • bertik mutilation, maiming; dislocation (of a joint); break, fracture (of a limb).
  • berttin- to be maimed, injured. [<CT *bertin-]
  • berttindir- to maim.
  • bes a species of edible bulb (Erythronium). [<NE *bes]
  • bes gland; čaraa bezi salivary gland [<CT *be:z]
  • bestig-baarzïk pancreas.
  • beš five; beški fifth. [<CT *be:š]
  • beš-adar rifle.
  • beti [behti] this side; front, before; xem betinde at this side of the river; betinge near, on this side of; šuugaar betinde as concerns gossip, with respect to gossip. [Tofa beht]
  • bezerek insufficient, inadequate; premature, born prematurely; defective; bezerek kïl- to do inadequately, to leave uncompleted. [LM besereg]
  • bezin even, yet; ol bezin kelbeen-dir s/he has not come yet. [Tofa bezin]
  • beželee(n) five together, the five of, fivesome.
  • bežen fifty; bežengi fiftieth. [<NE *beš + *on]
  • bežennig being fifty years of age.
  • biče small, little, petty; youngest, junior; biče setkil modesty; biče setkildig modest; biče oglu his/her youngest son; biče leytenant junior lieutenant; biče buržuaziya petty bourgoisie; biče öreelge orun sal put the bed in the small room.
  • biče-böövey little finger.
  • biče-salaa little finger.
  • biče-šöömey little finger.
  • bičežek small, insignificant (e.g. of size).
  • bičele- to become little or small, to lessen, to decrease, to diminish.
  • bičelet- to make little or small, to lessen, to decrease, to reduce; to belittle, to depreciate.
  • bičii small, little; a little, a bit, a trifle, slightly; bičii ool small boy; bičii ïnay quite small, insignificant; bičii balïk small fish.
  • bii-sarïg a species of songbird.
  • biiže whetting stone.
  • bil- to know, to get to know; to be aware of, to recognize; to understand; to know to, to know how, to be able to; ïlap bil- to know exactly; utkazïn bil- to know or understand the meaning of it; nomčup bil- to be able to read; bilbes men I don’t know, I don’t know how. [<CT *bil-]
  • bilbeečeŋne- to pretend not to know, to feign ignorance.
  • bildi knowledge; magical powers.
  • bildilig knowledgeable; possessing magical powers.
  • bildin- to be evident, visible, noticeable, to appear.
  • bildinček well-known, generally known; clear, comprehensible.
  • bildingir understandable, comprehensible, clear; söstüŋ utkazï bildingir the meaning of the word is clear.
  • bildinmes unknown, unclear, not understood; ooŋ kažan keliri bildinmes it is unknown when s/he will come.
  • bildir- to let know, to make known, to inform, to notify, to report. [<CT *bildür-]
  • bildirt- to let know, to make known, to inform, to notify, to report.
  • bile and, together with; by means of; (adverbaliser: noun + pos3 + bile); olčaanï-bile in the same way, likewise; üzüü-bile chunk-wise; büzürediri-bile convincingly; kiddingly. [<CT *bi:rle]
  • bilek wrist. [<CT *bilek]
  • bilek as soon as; xün üneri bilek, bis ažïlday bergen we started working as soon as the sun rose.
  • bilekte- to take by the wrist.
  • bilekteeš bracelet. [Khak pĭlektes]
  • bilig knowledge; idea, notion, conception; education; xanï bilig profound knowledge; bilig – küš knowledge is power. [<CT *bilig]
  • biliglig educated, learned, erudite. [<CT *biliglig]
  • bilikse- to want to know. [<CT *bilikse-]
  • bilin- (minnir) to feel, to have the sensation of, to sense, to be aware; to come to one’s senses; to recognise, to admit, to own up to. [<CT *bilin-]
  • bilindir- to persuade, to convince; to make aware; to bring to one’s senses; to subdue. [<CT *bilin-]
  • bilindirig persuasion.
  • bilindiriiškin persuasion.
  • bilinmeste- to lose consciousness; to lose sensitivity, to become numb; xolum bilinmestey berdi my hand grew numb.
  • biliš- (bilčir) to understand each other. [<CT *biliš-]
  • bilzek ring. [<CT *bilezük]
  • bir one; once; bir dugaar first; bir katap once; bir kiži someone; bir čüve something; bir čerde someplace, somewhere, at a certain place; bir šagda once, at a certain time; bir xün one day; bir-le some; any; a certain; a bit, a time; bir-le čer someplace; bir-le kör- to look a bit, to throw a glance; bir eves if; birgi first. [<CT *bi:r]
  • birde sometimes, at times; birde čahs-daa čaar, birde xar-daa čaap keer at times it rains, at times it snows. [Khak pĭrde]
  • birde-birde now ... now, sometimes ... sometimes, at one moment ... at another.
  • biree one, single; any; bireezi one of; bireede at first; bireezinden ïrakta far from any of them. [<CT *bi:regü]
  • birik- to unite, to come together; to go on well. [<CT *bi:rik-]
  • biriktir- to unite, to bring together.
  • bis the sharp or point (of a knife, needle); knife; bižek bizi the sharp of a knife; ine bizi the point of a needle. [<CT *bi:z]
  • bis [bihs] we; bisti us; bistiŋ our; biske to us; biste at us; bisten from us; bisče towards us; bistive towards us; bistii ours; bistii-bile according to us. [<CT *biz]
  • bistig sharp, cutting.
  • biyee far, past; the same, the very one; biyee šagda in the past; biyee artist that same artist; biyeede in the past; biyeegi the aforementioned. [<CT *baya]
  • biyeek long ago.
  • biyir brush (for paint, glue, etc). [LM bir ←Ch]
  • bize- to whet, sharpen; karandaš bize- to sharpen a pencil; xiree bize- to sharpen a saw. [Khak pĭze-]
  • bizeŋ mountain crest.
  • bizet- to let whet, sharpen.
  • bizirer- to huddle together, to gather in one place, to concentrate, to flock, to cluster.
  • bizirt crowded, dense, congested; much, in bulk, a lot of; xovuda mal bizirt there is much livstock in the steppes.
  • bižeeči clerk. [LM bičigeči]
  • bižek [bihžek] knife; bižek sïvï the haft of a knife. [<CT *bi:ček]
  • bižekte- to cut or stab with a knife.
  • bižekten- to cut or stab oneself with a knife.
  • biži- [bihži-] to write; čagaa biži- to write a leter; šülük biži- to write poetry. [LM biči-]
  • bižigle- to write a letter. [LM bičigle-]
  • bižik [bihžik] writing, a piece of writing, letter; tïva bižik Tuvan writing; bižik bilbes oruk illiteracy. [LM bičig]
  • bižiktig written, having a writing.
  • bižimel (hand)writing, handwritten. [LM bičimel]
  • bižiš- to write to each other, to correspond.
  • bižiirge- to feel shy, to be confused, embarrassed, timid.
  • bižiirget- to confuse, to embarrass.
  • bižiiškin a writing, a sign.
  • bižit- to let write.
  • bïdaa groats; soup (from groats); porridge; ak bïdaa rice; milk soup; milk porridge. [LM budaγa(n)]
  • bïdaala- to eat soup; to add to the soup (as an ingredient). [LM budaγala-]
  • bïdara- [bïhdara-] to disperse, to dissipate, to get scattered; čük bïdara- to get scattered in all directions (e.g. of livestock). [LM butara-]
  • bïdarat- to disperse, to dissipate, to scatter.
  • bïdargay [bïhdargay] dispersed, scattered, dissipated, sparse. [LM butarqai]
  • bïdï- to be or become lice-ridden.
  • bïgïn [bïhgïn] side, edge (lower part); flank, groin; bïktï ts side. [<CT *bïkïn]
  • bïgïnna- [bïhgïnna-] to snap to the side (with the teeth) (e.g. of a horse when tightening the saddle girth); to find fault with, to pick on, to nag at.
  • bïktïš narrow, tight, crowded, cramped, packed.
  • bïktïža- to be narrow, tight, crowded, cramped, packed.
  • bïlaa- to take away by force. [LM buliya-]
  • bïlaaš argument, dispute, lawsuit.
  • bïlaaš- to try to capture, to take away from each other by force; murnun bïlaaš- to try to outstrip one another.
  • bïlaaštïg arguable, disputable; bïlaaštïg xerek disputable matter.
  • bïlaat kerchief. [←Rus plat]
  • bïlaat- to let take away by force.
  • bïlaattïr- to let take away by force.
  • bïlča- [bïhlča-] to smear, to soil, to stain, to dirty. [LM bilča-]
  • bïlčak [bïhlčak] dirty, soiled, stained; blot, smudge; daub. [<CT *balčïk]
  • bïlčakta- to smear, to soil, to stain, to dirty; to write illegibly.
  • bïlčaktaš- to smear, soil, stain, dirty one another.
  • bïlčaš- to smear, soil, stain, dirty one another.
  • bïlčat- to let smear, soil, stain, dirty.
  • bïlda [bïhlda] fuse (for igniting an explosive). [LM bilta]
  • bïlda- to evade, to avoid, to shun, to shirk, to dodge; to cover one’s tracks; (of a bullet) to miss, to be beside the mark; (of a horse) to shy. [LM bulta-]
  • bïldaačal evasive (in answering), dodgy.
  • bïldaaškïn evasion; bïldaaškïn čokka xarïïla- to answer without evasion.
  • bïldala- to ignite with a fuse.
  • bïldalïg having a fuse; bïldalïg boo gun having a fuse.
  • bïldamïk evasive, dodgy.
  • bïldamïkta- to evade, to avoid, to shun, to shirk, to dodge.
  • bïldamïš evasive, dodgy.
  • bïldat- to let evade, avoid.
  • bïlga- to wave; to stir, to agitate; to outwit; xol bïlga- to wave the hand. [<CT *bulga-]
  • bïlga- to smear, to daub; to rinse, to wash by moving something to and fro through the water. [LM bulqa-]
  • bïlgaaš mixer, stirring rod (for stirring grain when roasting it).
  • bïlgamïk inclined to muddling up.
  • bïlgamïkta- to delude, to mislead, to muddling up; to evade, to avoid, to shun, to shirk, to dodge.
  • bïlgaš- to help wave, stir, agitate.
  • bïlgat- to let wave, stir, agitate.
  • bïlgï snorting (of a horse).
  • bïlgïr- [bïhlgïr-] to snort (of horses).
  • bïlgïrt- to let snort.
  • bïra lever (for lifting heavy objects), support; bïra ïyažï supporting beam.
  • bïra species of grey steppe partridge.
  • bïra the first ice at the banks on a river, sludge ice.
  • bïraat Buryat. [LM buriyad]
  • bïrala- to lever something up.
  • bïralaš- to help lever something up.
  • bïralat- to let lever something up.
  • bïragda- to become covered with ice, to freeze over, (of a river) to freeze at the banks.
  • bïraš- to match, to be equal, to not be inferior (in power, skill); to cope with, to manage, to handle.
  • bïrdaan Berdan rifle. [←Rus berdanka]
  • bïrïstaa verst. [←Rus versta]
  • bïrïš- (of clothes) to wrinkle, to cockle up.
  • bïrïškak wrinkle, crease; in wrinkles, creased; warped.
  • bïrïštïr- to wrinkle (the face), to make a wry face; to crease (material, paper).
  • bïrïžaŋna- to twitch, to grimace, to make faces.
  • bïrïžaŋnat- to let twitch, grimace, make faces.
  • bïrlagar covered with a surge (of waves); wavy.
  • bïrlaŋ ripple(s), surge (of waves).
  • bïrlaŋayïn- to ripple, to be covered by a surge (of waves); xöl bïrlaŋaynïp čïtkan the lake was covered by surges of waves.
  • bïrlaŋna- to ripple, to be covered by a surge (of waves).
  • bïrlaŋnaaš ripple(s), surge (of waves).
  • bïrlaŋnat- to cause to ripple, to cause to be covered by a surge (of waves); xat sugnu *bïrlaŋnadïp tur the wind caused the water to ripple.
  • bïrtak [bïhrtak] mucus, slime; weed.
  • bïrtaktal- to be overgrown by weed.
  • bïrtaktïg mucous, slimy.
  • bïržï [bïhržï] scratch, trace of a wound.
  • bïskan [bïhskan] powder snow, soft snow; bïskan xar newly fallen snow.
  • bïskanna- of powder snow to fall, of snow to freshly fall; oruktu xar bïskannapkan snow has freshly fallen on the road.
  • bïskannïg covered with powder snow.
  • bïstan piston, percussion cap. [←Rus piston]
  • bïstannïg having a piston, percussion cap.
  • bïš- [bïhš-] to cut, to cut out; xep bïžarï the act of cutting out. [<CT *bïč-]
  • bïš- to churn (butter), to mix, to whisk, to whip (e.g. sour milk during the preparation of kumys). [< CT *bïš-]
  • bïš- [bïhš-] to become ripe, mature, to ripen, to mature (of berries, grain); to boil, to cook (of water or food). [<CT *bïš-]
  • bïškak [bïhškak] animal skin with the paws. [Khak pïsxax]
  • bïškï spaddle for skimming the milk; spaddle for cutting the hardened cheese in squares or rounds, churn staff; piston. [<CT *bïšku]
  • bïškïïš spaddle for cutting the hardened cheese in squares or rounds, churn staff.
  • bïškïr- to sneeze. [Khak pïsxïr-]
  • bïškïrïš- to sneeze several times.
  • bïštak cheese (from sheep’s milk).
  • bïštakta- to make cheese (from sheep’s milk).
  • bïštaktal- (of milk) to turn to cheese.
  • bïštïr- [bïhš-] to let cut, to let cut out. [<CT *bïčtur-]
  • bït [bïht] louse. [<CT *bït]
  • bïtta- to remove the lice; to do with great care, to do thoroughly.
  • bïttïg infested with lice.
  • bïyirgïn light rash on the skin; scattered (of a rash, freckles); small, fine; bïyïrgïn činčiler small beads.
  • bïyirgïnna- to be covered with a rash.
  • bïza- [bïhza-] to strew with, to powder with.
  • bïzaa one-year-old calf; mïygak bïzaazï fawn of the maral deer; sarlïk bïzaa yak calf; bïzaa ažaakčïzï, bïzaa kažaazï calf-shed. [<CT *buzagu]
  • bïzaala- to calve; to drive up the calves. [<CT *buzagula-]
  • bïzaalaaškïn calving.
  • bïzaalïg having a calf; bïzaalïg inek cow having a calf.
  • bïzaančï [bïhzaančï] Tuvan spike fiddle.
  • bïzaančïla- to play the spike fiddle.
  • bïzam a pinch of (usually said of products like flour and groats for seasoning broth).
  • bïzaŋ carpenter; joiner. [LM muĵan ←Ch]
  • bïzaŋčï carpenter; joiner.
  • bïzaŋčïla- to work as a carpenter, joiner.
  • bïzaŋna- to work as a carpenter, joiner.
  • bïžar [bïhžar] measles.
  • bïžar-dumaa [bïhžar-dumaa] smallpox.
  • bïžï- [bïhžï-] to become strong, firm, to consolidate.
  • bïžïg strong, stiff, hard, firm, solid; bïžïg ïyaš hard wood; bïžïg pös strong fabric; bïžïg taybïŋ stable peace; bïžïg biligler sound knowledge; bïžïg soruk strong will; bïžïg soruktug strong willed. [<CT *bïšïg]
  • bïžïgla- to strengthen, to consolidate, to secure, to fasten, to fix; algan biliglerni bïžïgla- to commit to memory what one has learned.
  • bïžïglaaškïn strengthening, consolidation; šöl bïžïglaaškïn (military) securing of the terrain.
  • bïžïglakčï fixing agent, fixer.
  • bïžïglal strengthening, consolidation, securing, fastening, fixing.
  • bïžïglan- to firmly hold oneself on to.
  • bïžïglanïïškïn strengthening, consolidation.
  • bïžïglaš- to help strengthen, consolidate, secure, fasten, to strengthen together.
  • bïžïk- [bïhžïk-] to become strong, firm, to consolidate; Sovyet Evileliniŋ bügü-delegey baydalï ulam-na bïžïga bergen the international position of the Sovet Union has become stronger.
  • bïžïkčï tailor’s cutter.
  • bïžïkčïla- to cut with a tailor’s cutter.
  • bïžïktïr- to strengthen, to consolidate; küš-ažïlčïdïŋ sagïlga-čurumnu bïžïktïr- to strengthen the working discipline.
  • bïžïlgak [bïhžïlgak] nappy rash.
  • bïžïlgan [bïhžïlgan] nappy rash. [<CT *bïčïlgan]
  • bïžïlganna- (of babies) to suffer from nappy rash.
  • bïžïn- (bïštïr) (of babies) to suffer from nappy rash. [cf. CT *bïčïl-]
  • bïžïndï a piece cut off.
  • bïžïr- to bake, to broil, to roast; to work thoroughly through the end; xuužuur bïžïr- to bake pancakes; xleb bïžïr- to bake bread; eht bïžïr- to roast meat; iletkeldi bïžïrïp al- to work thoroughly through the lecture. [<CT *bïšur-]
  • bïžïrïmčalïg [bïhžïrïmčalïg] detailed, thorough; šuptuzun bïžïrïmčalïg boda- to think everything over in detail.
  • bïžïrïmčïlïg detailed, thorough.
  • bïžïrïš- to help bake, broil, roast.
  • bïžïrt- to let cook, bake, broil, roast. [<CT *bïšurt-]
  • bïžït- to make stronger, to strengthen, to consolidate; Sovyet Evileliniŋ küčüzün bïžït- to consolidate the power of the Sovet Union.
  • bödene quail. [LM büdüne]
  • bödey poor; dilapidated, old; bödey ög dilapidated house.
  • bödeyle- to set up a yurt.
  • bödeylen- to acquire a yurt, to set up house.
  • bödüree pail, bucket. [←Rus vedro]
  • bödüün simple, plain, common, ordinary, basic, elementary; bödüün bodalga simple task; bödüün kiži common person; bödüün pös plain fabric; bödüün düktüg xoylar sheep with coarse wool; bödüün bilig elementary concept; bödüün domak simple sentence (in grammar). [LM büdügün]
  • bödüünčü- to become simpler, to be simplified.
  • bödüünčüdülge simplification.
  • bödüünčürgü simple, elementary.
  • bödüünčüt- to simplify; formulanï bödüünčüt- to simplify the formula.
  • bögün today; bögün koncert bolur there will be a concert today. [<CT *bo: + *kün]
  • bögüngü of today, today’s; bögüngü solun today’s newspaper.
  • bökpeger [böhkpeger] thick, dense (e.g. of shrubs, trees); congested, piled up.
  • bökpek [böhkpek] bouquet, bunch; heap, pile; bökpek čeček a bunch of flowers; bökpek daštar a pile of stones. [cf. LM bögem]
  • bökpekteš- [böhkpekteš-] to pile up, to be gathered in a pile.
  • bökperleš- [böhkperleš-] to huddle together, to flock, to cluster.
  • böl- (böler) to gather, to assemble (in one place); čïlgï böl- to gather a herd; böle oylat- to drive together (cattle); sigen böl- to rake up grass (in one place).
  • böldeger (of clothes) baggy, awkwardly large.
  • böldey- (of clothes) to be baggy, to be awkwardly large.
  • böldün- to be gathered, to converge.
  • böldünček assembled into a heap, dense.
  • böldünüš- (böldünčür) to be united, joined, to rally; to be gathered, to converge; Sovyet ulus kommunistig partiyanï dolgandïr böldünüšken the Sovet people have rallied around the communist party; xuralče böldünüš- to gather in a meeting.
  • böldür- to let gather, assemble.
  • böle-xaara by the armful; böle-xaara segirip al- to grasp by the armful.
  • bölgeer separate, isolated, apart. [cf. CT *bö:l-]
  • bölgeet separate, isolated, apart.
  • bölgeettel- to be separated, isolated, apart.
  • bölgüm [böhlgüm] group, circle; partiya töögüzü öörenir bölgüm group for studying the history of the party; bölgüm ažïlï group work; balïk(čï) bölgüm fishing group, group of fishermen working jointly. [LM bülgüm]
  • bölgümčü [böhlgümčü] member of a group or circle.
  • bölgümneš- [böhlgümneš-] to be grouped, to be united in a group or circle.
  • bölügle- to group, to classify. [LM bülügle-]
  • bölügleeškin group, grouping.
  • bölüglel phrase; deyepričastiyelig bölüglel converb phrase; pričastiyelig bölüglel participle phrase.
  • bölügleš- to gather into groups, to form groups.
  • bölügležiiškin group, grouping, contingent; šerigniŋ murnuu talakï bölügležiiškini the southern contingent of the troops.
  • bölügležilge group, grouping, contingent.
  • bölük group, circle; party, wing, political group, faction; category; section (in a book); bölük kižiler group of people; frakciyalïg bölük fractional group; ekspediciyanïŋ birgi bölüü the first group of the expedition; buržuaz partiyanïŋ čöön bölüü the left wing of the bourgeois party; niiti ïr bölügü singing circle, chorus. [CT *bö:lük, LM bülüg]
  • bölükte- to divide into groups, to group; to classify.
  • bölükteeškin grouping, group; classification; dirig amïtannar aymaanïŋ bölükteeškini the classification of the realm of living animals.
  • bölükteš- to gather into group, to form groups.
  • bömbük ball, sphere; agaar bömbüü balloon; but bömbüü football; xol bömbüü volleyball; častïr bömbük bomb. [LM bömbüge(n)]
  • bömbükte- to play with a ball; to throw a bomb, to bomb.
  • bömbürzek globe, the Earth. [LM bömbürčeg]
  • bööl- (böglür) to stop flowing, to coagulate (e.g. of blood).
  • böölbürgey clumsy, awkward.
  • böölbüreš clumsy, awkward.
  • böölde- to turn, to spin, to twirl.
  • böölden- to turn, to spin, to be turned, spun, twirled.
  • bööldes (of a gown or garment) ungirdled, without sash or belt, thrown open.
  • bööldesten- to ungirdle, to remove the sash; tonun bööldesten- to ungirdle one’s garment.
  • bööldeš (of a gown or garment) ungirdled, without sash or belt, thrown open.
  • bööldešten- to ungirdle, to remove the sash.
  • bööldet- to turn, to spin, to make or let turn or spin.
  • böörteŋ hernia; böörteŋ kiži person suffering from inguinal hernia. [LM bögeredeng]
  • bööškün plug (of e.g. wood, a rag); piston.
  • bööškünne- to plug, to stop up, to close off.
  • bööškünnüg plugged, stopped up, closed off.
  • böpügür thick, plump, chubby. [cf. LM bömbügür]
  • böpüy- to become thick, chubby (e.g. of a child); to swell, to bulge, to inflate. [cf. LM bömbüi-]
  • böpüyt- to let swell up, to inflate (e.g. a balloon).
  • börbek [böhrbek] round, bulging, spherical; lump, clod, small ball or sphere; kïzïl xan börbekter red blood corpuscles.
  • börbekteš- [böhrbekteš-] to roll up into a ball or lump; to assume a rounded form.
  • börbeŋne- [börbeŋne-] to roll (of a ball or the eyes).
  • börbey- [böhrbey-] to be or become round, bulging, spherical.
  • börbügür thick, plump, fat; swollen, pouting, bulging (e.g. lips, face).
  • bört [böhrt] hat, cap; börgüm my hat; börgüŋ your hat; börgü his/her hat; kïškï bört winter hat; xalbaŋnïg bört cap with ear flaps; xavaktïg bört peaked cap; xavak čok bört peakless cap; kadag börgü nailhead; eeriil börgü screw nut. [<NE börk, CT *bö:rk]
  • börtek [böhrtek] boy’s penis.
  • börü wolf; kïs börü she-wolf, female wolf; börü oglu wolf cub; böru agla- to hunt wolves with a battue; börü keži wolf skin; xoy keži ketken börü wolf in sheep skin. [<CT *bö:ri]
  • börüle- to hunt for wolves.
  • börzek [böhrzek] wolf cub.
  • börzekpen wolf cub (nickname for a dog).
  • böske [böhske] case or cover for a hunting gun (covering butt and lock).
  • böskek [böhskek] breast of a bird. [<CT *böksek]
  • böskele- [böhskele-] to put a case on a hunting gun.
  • bözür [böhzür] pitted, pocked, pockmarked (of the face); uneven, rough (of a surface); toothed, jagged; pockmarck; roughness; elevation with small cliffs; place covered with stones; bözür arïn face with pockmarks; bözür sambïra rough board.
  • bözür-paga toad.
  • bözürgey [böhzürgey] pitted, pocked, pockmarked (of the face); uneven, rough (of a surface); toothed, jagged.
  • bözürer- [böhzürer-] to be or become pitted, pockmarked, rough, uneven.
  • bözüreš [böhzüreš] pitted, pocked, pockmarked (of the face); uneven, rough (of a surface); toothed, jagged.
  • bözürle- [böhzürle-] to be or become pitted, pockmarked, rough, uneven.
  • bözerlen- [böhzürlen-] to become pitted, pock-marked.