E

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Etymological Legend
Ch Chinese
CT Common Turkic
Kh Khalkha Mongolian
Khak Khakas
LM Literary Mongolian
LT Literary Tibetan
NE Northeastern Turkic
Rus Russian
Skt Sanskrit
  • ečigey brr! (exclamation of cold).
  • ečis final, last, ending; ečis sorulga ultimate objective; ečizinge čedir- to carry through; ečizinde barïp in the end, finally, in the long run. [LM ečüs]
  • ede again, re-; ede deri- to re-equip; ede kïl- to do over again, to redo; ede organizasta- to reorganise; ede turgus- to reconstruct; ede turguzuuškun reconstruction; cf. et-.
  • edek [ehdek] hem, flap, skirt; border, foot of a mountain; border, edge of a wood. [<CT *etek]
  • edekte- to carry in the panel or skirts of clothing; to walk past the foot of a mountain. [<CT *etekte-]
  • eder- to follow, to go after. [<CT *eder-]
  • eder-xaaržak accordion.
  • eder-xaaržakta- to play the accordion.
  • ederinči fellow-traveler; postposition.
  • ederiš- to become friends; to go together; (of animals) to obey.
  • edert- to lead. [<CT *edert-]
  • edig repair; recovery. [<CT *e:tig]
  • edilekči owner, possessor; speaker of a language.
  • edilel owning, possession, ownership, property; manufactured article; daštan kïlgan edilelder articles manufactured from stone. [LM edlel]
  • edir epiploon; sebaceous membrane; edir buluttar fleecy clouds.
  • edir- to allow the calf to approach the cow, in order to cause the cow to give more milk.
  • edirek cf. ödürek duck.
  • ee host, lord, owner, master, boss. [<CT *idi ~ *ige]
  • eedere- to grow stupid, foolish, to become muddle-headed, half-witted; to get confused, bewildered. [LM egedeyire-]
  • eederet- to confuse, to bewilder.
  • eedergey stupid, foolish, muddle-headed, half-witted.
  • eedergeyzimzeer dull, not very bright, silly.
  • eegi rib. [<CT *eyekü]
  • eek- (eeger) to bent, to bow, to kneel, to stoop.
  • eel- (eglir) to be bent, curved; cf. eŋme-. [<CT *egil-]
  • eelčeg turn, rank, order, sequence, shift; meeŋ eelčeem keldi it is my turn; xünnüŋ eelčeende ?in the next days; ertengi eelčeg morning shift; kežeeki eelčeg night shift. [LM egelĵiye(n)]
  • eelčeglig regular, ordered, routine.
  • eelčeštir- to proceed in order.
  • eeldek pliant, supple, polite, pleasant; eeldeg čaŋnïg kiži a pleasant person. [LM eyeldeg]
  • eele- to occupy; to keep house, to manage a household; olut eele- to occupy a seat; poziciyanï eele- to occupy a position; sözün eele- to keep one’s word.
  • eelet- to let occupy, keep house, manage a household.
  • een empty, uninhabited, deserted; ownerless; een čer an uninhabited place; een bažïŋ ownerless house. [<NE *e:n]
  • een eht the muscle of the back.
  • eenzirgey empty, uninhabited, deserted; eenzirgei xovular uninhabited steppes.
  • eer arched (e.g of horns).
  • eer- to bark; ït eerip tur the dog is barking. [<CT *he:r-]
  • eer- to twist, to spin; xendir eer- to twist hemp. [<CT *egir-]
  • eerbek arched, bow-shaped.
  • eerem deep place, pool, slough; eerem deg dense and tall; eerem-ne many, a lot, teeming with; eerem deg oht-sigen dense and tall grass; xovuda čïlgï eerem-ne the steppe is teeming with horseherds.
  • eeremčik (~ eeremčigey) spider; eeremčik duzaa cobweb. [<CT *ö:rümčik]
  • eeren idol.
  • eereš- to plead, to persuade, to persist, to beg. [cf. LM egere-]
  • eergi barking often (of dogs); eergi ït husky (dog breed).
  • eergiiš mountain ash, rowan-tree (Sorbus, Pomaceae); cf. xöörüüs.
  • eergiiš spindle, axle, shank.
  • eergiiš whirlpool, maelstrom; cf. boralgak.
  • eeriil screw; bolt. [LM egeregül spindle]
  • eeš female bear. [<NE *egeš]
  • eetpek arched, bow-shaped; gulf.
  • eežegey cottage cheese (made from sour milk). [LM egezegei]
  • eežek heel (of a foot or shoe).
  • eežok un-owned, ownerless, no man’s.
  • eg- (eer) to turn, to return, to go back; to bend, to bow, to make arched; oruk ara eg- to turn back halfway; komandirovkadan eep kelgen s/he returned from a business trip. [<CT *eg-]
  • ege completely, totally, only.
  • ege [ehge] beginning, start; headline; chapter; ööredilge čïlïnïŋ egezi the beginning of the study year; toolduŋ egezi the beginning of a tale; ege škola elementary school; ege klasstar elementary classes; ege xemčeg unit (of measuring); ege sös foreword, introduction. [LM eki(n)]
  • ege- to file. [<CT *e:ke-]
  • egee file (a tool).
  • egeertinmes inexhaustible; rich in.
  • egele- to begin, to start; öörenip egele- to start studying; bižip egele- to start writing. [LM ekile-]
  • egen- to be timid, shy, confused, embarrassed.
  • egenček shy, timid, diffident, bashful.
  • egendir- to make timid, shy; to confuse, to embarras; to put to shame.
  • egenig timidity, shyness; uneasiness.
  • egeniičel shy, timid, diffident, bashful.
  • egeniiškin timidity, shyness; uneasiness.
  • egey ?fur coat.
  • egiir: egiir šagdan long since, since olden times; egiir šagda forever, for good, in perpetuity; egiirede forever, forgood, in perpetuity. [LM egüri]
  • egin shoulder; ekti his/her shoulder; egin söögü shoulder bone. [<CT *egin]
  • eginne- to carry on the shoulders.
  • egiš breathlessness, short breath.
  • egit- to return, to give back.
  • egle- to clean, to refine (grain from the chaff by beating the trough on the knees); cf elge-.
  • eki (~ ekki) good, well; hello; eki bil- to know well; moon eki better than this; eki šïnarlïg of high quality; eki-le dize at best; eki tura voluntary; eki tura-bile voluntarily; eki turačï volunteer; ekizi körgen fortunate, lucky. eki, ešter! hello friends!
  • eki-bak (~ eki-bagay) all sorts of, all kinds, any (lit. good-bad).
  • eki-baktïg all sorts of, all kinds, any.
  • ekidir well, as ought, properly; bižekti ekidir bize sharpen the knife properly.
  • ekii hello; ekii šuptu! hello everybody!
  • ekiirgek generous, liberal, hospitable; ekiirgek kiži hospitable person.
  • ekiri- to get well, to recover; (of a wound) to skin over, to heal.
  • ekiži- to become better, to improve.
  • ekkel- (ekkeer) to bring along.
  • el a steep slope.
  • elbe- to be abundant, to abound in.
  • elbeerge- to boast of one’s abundance, to consider oneself as having something in abundance; edinge elbeergeves one must not boast of of one’s possessions.
  • elbek abundant, plentiful; elbee-bile abundantly. [LM elbeg]
  • elbekši- to be abundant. [LM elbegsi-]
  • elbekšil abundance. [LM elbegsil]
  • elči ambassador, emissary, envoy. [<CT *elči]
  • elčigen donkey. [LM elĵige(n)]
  • eldep strange, unusual. [LM eldeb]
  • ele so, indeed. [LM ele]
  • ele- to become worn off, to wear out; dürgen ele- to wear out quickly. [LM ele-]
  • eleečel wearing out quickly.
  • eleen quite a lot; enough, sufficient(ly), rather, fairly; eleen ulug fairly big.
  • eleer sober, abstinent. [LM elegür]
  • elek not yet.
  • eleŋne- to shake, to rock, to swing.
  • elezin sand. [LM elesü(n)]
  • elge- cf. egle- to sieve, to refine. [<CT *elge-]
  • elgeeš sieve.
  • elik doe of the roe deer. [<CT *elik]
  • elzet- to recruit, to win over to one’s side. [cf. LM else-]
  • em medicine. [CT *em, LM em]
  • em- to suck (the breast). [<CT *em-]
  • emči doctor. [CT *emči, LM emči]
  • emdik not broken-in. [LM emleg, emneg, emnig]
  • emegleš- (emigležer) to attack.
  • emeyek great-grandfather, forfather.
  • emge-seske order, neatness, tidiness. [LM emki čegče]
  • emgežok very much; cf. eŋmežok.
  • emig female breast; udder; emig urug baby. [<CT *emig]
  • emigle- to help; to tackle.
  • emigle- to swell (of the udder before a calf).
  • emigleš- (emigležer) to help one another, to do something together; to tackle together.
  • emin: emin erttir (~ emin ertir) too much, in excess, exaggerated; monu emin ertir tottur čip bolbas one cannot overeat oneself from this.
  • emir- to break off.
  • emiskik feeding-bottle for children; funnel, spout (e.g. of teapot).
  • emne- to heal, to treat; aaraan kižini emne- to treat an ill person. [CT *emle-, LM emne-]
  • emnelge medicine; hospital, clinic; uruglar emnelgezi children’s hospital; mal emnelgezi veterinary clinic.
  • emnet- to undergo medical treatment; to get cured. [<CT *emlet-]
  • emzir- to suckle.
  • enček (felt) blanket.
  • ene great-grandmother; nanny.
  • ende- to mistake somebody for somebody else; to perish, to be lost, to die (suddenly); sugga ende- to drown; ahtka ende- to fall from one’s horse and die. [LM ende-]
  • enik puppy. [<CT *enük]
  • enikte- (of a dog) to give birth to puppies, cubs.
  • enir not far; past; enir čïlïn last year.
  • superlative particle: most, very; eŋ ulug largest; eŋ eki best; eŋ čaraš most beautiful; eŋ berge most difficult, hardest; eŋ baštay first, very first. [<CT *eŋ]
  • eŋbek chronic disease. [<CT *emgek, LM emgeg]
  • eŋdere much, a lot (only used with verbs); eŋdere nomču- to read much; eŋdere čïg- to gather much.
  • eŋge-doŋga (~ eŋge-daŋga) ?a proper name.
  • eŋgin female camel. [<CT *hingen]
  • eŋgiske rouge; a wild beet. [LM enggeske]
  • eŋmek curved, bent, concave; eŋmek körünčük concave mirror; eŋmek mïyïstïg with sharply bent, curved horns.
  • eŋme- to be bent, curved; cf. eel-.
  • eŋmežok cf. emgežok very much.
  • ep agreement, harmony, friendship, peace. [LM eb]
  • ep-nayïral friendship; buzulbas ep-nayïral unbreakable friendship.
  • ep-setkil agreement; cohesion, union; ep-setkil kattïžïïškïnï solidarity.
  • epčok unsuitable, inconvenient.
  • epši (old) woman; cf. ešpi. [<CT *ebči]
  • epteš- to reconcile with.
  • eptig comfortable, handy, practical, friendly, harmonious.
  • er man, male; er xey young man, youth; er xavan boar; er ödürek drake. [<CT *er]
  • erben notch, jag, gap, indentation, hollow, groove.
  • ere- to wish, to expect, to look for. [LM eri-]
  • ereen-šokar multicoloured. [LM eriyen čoqor]
  • erege rosary, beads. [LM erike(n)]
  • eres bold, daring; eres er bold fellow, dare-devil; eres čoruk bravery, courage; cf. omak, orlan, šovaa.
  • erge right, authority; ažïldaar erge the right to work; dïštanïr erge the right to have a break; soŋgulda ergezi voting right. [LM erke]
  • erge comfort, soft life, delight, bliss. [<CT *erke]
  • erge-ažïk interests. [cf. LM asig erke]
  • erge-čagïrga power, authority.
  • erge-kara dear one, beloved, sweetheart.
  • ergek finger; thumb. [<CT *erŋek]
  • ergekteeš touch-hole of a cross-bow.
  • ergele- to know; to administer. [LM erkele-]
  • ergelekči director, leader. [LM erkilegči]
  • ergelet- to have administered.
  • ergelet- to soften, to move, to have feelings of endearment.
  • ergelig rightly, currently.
  • ergežok: ergežok čugula necessary, indispensable.
  • ergi previous, former, old. [<NE *erki]
  • ergi- to go around, to go through, to circulate. [LM ergi-]
  • ergii absent-minded. [LM ergigüü]
  • ergilde turn, change, circulation. [LM ergilte]
  • ergil- to turn around, to swing around, to make a circle; to revolve, to rotate.
  • ergildir- to turn, to make turn.
  • ergim dear, beloved, kind, esteemed; ergim ešter dear friends; ergim öŋnük beloved friend. [LM erkim]
  • ergin threshold.
  • eri- to thaw, to melt. [<CT *erü-]
  • erig thawed, melted; erig xar melted snow. [<CT *erig]
  • eriide- to torture; to beat. [cf. LM erigüle-]
  • erik border, edge; xem erii river side, shore; ayak erii edge of a bowl. [LM ergi]
  • erin lip; ernim my lip; üstüü erin upper lip; aldïï erin lower lip. [<CT *erin]
  • erlik underworld; erlik oranï netherworld, hell. [LM erlig]
  • ert- to go past, to walk past, to outrun, to overtake, to surpass. [<CT *ert-]
  • erte early; ertenginiŋ ertezinde in the earliness of early times, long ago. [<CT *erte, LM erte(n)]
  • erteži early rising.
  • ertem science, knowledge, learning. [LM erdem]
  • ertem-bilig education.
  • ertem-šinčilel research.
  • ertemden scholar; scientist. [LM erdemten]
  • ertemnig learned, smart; scientific.
  • erten early in the morning; tomorrow. [LM erte(n)]
  • ertengi early; of an early time.
  • ertik if only, would (particle expressing irrealis); sug xöy bolgan bolza, tarïlgaga eki bolgay ertik if there would have been more water, it would have been good for the grain.
  • ertine jewel, treasure. [<CT *ertini, LM erdeni ←Skt ratna]
  • ertip even if, although.
  • erttir (~ ertir) through, across, passing; over, in excess (in combination with verbs); erttir udu- to oversleep; erttir xayïndïr- to overcook; erttir čugaalaš- to speak for a long time.
  • erttir- to let pass, to let go of, to allow for, to permit; to be overtaken, surpassed; to pass, to spend (time, holidays); čazïg erttirbe don’t allow for mistakes; čaynï ködeege erttir- to spend the summer in the village. [<CT *ertür-]
  • erttirilge pass, permission, permit.
  • es- to take out, to take away, to take off; eht es- to take out the meat (from the cauldron).
  • esker- to notice, observe.
  • esket: esket čok imperceptibly, inconspicuously, suddenly.
  • eskit scraps, ends.
  • este- of the wind to rise.
  • estengi placenta, afterbirth (of animals).
  • estiičel easily dissolving, easily melting.
  • friend. [<CT *eš]
  • eš-öör friends.
  • eš- to row; to rake. [<CT *eš-]
  • eš- to twine.
  • eškede- to hurry.
  • eškenne- to scrape with the hoofs or paws; to shovel the earth.
  • eškiiš (~ eški) oar; spoon.
  • ešpi (old) woman; girl that is not very good; cf. epši.
  • eštig having friends.
  • et stuff, goods, possessions, things, household goods; tanned leather; caution (when wearing clothes). [<CT *ed, LM ed]
  • eht meat; inek ehdi beef; xoy ehdi mutton; xavan ehdi pork; aht ehdi horse meat; dagaa ehdi chicken meat; buur ehdi elk meat; ivi ehdi deer meat; öškü ehdi goat meat; adïg ehdi bear meat; balïk ehdi fish meat; šišteen eht skewered meat; eht munu meat soup. [<CT *et]
  • et- to order, to correct, to put in order; orun et- to make the bed; ede again, re-. [<CT *e:t-]
  • et- (eder) of cattle to give milk.
  • et- [eht-] of instruments to sound; of humans or animals to utter a sound; edigen mooing, bellowing; sös et- to utter a word; dömey et- to talk nonsense; aksïnga kelgen-ne čüve et- to say anything that comes up; boo edip tur a gun is sounding, a gunshot is audible;inek edip tur the cow is mooing; xoy edip tur the sheep is bleating; dagaa edip tur the chicken is cackling; eder deer bo! goodness gracious! [<NE *et-]
  • et-sep various things, goods, belongings.
  • eht-xan body, build.
  • et-xereksel stock; inventory.
  • et-xöreŋgi property, belongings. [LM ed köröngge]
  • et-xöreŋgilig having property, wealthy.
  • ehtkir fleshy.
  • ette- to hit, to beat, to thrash; to dress, to curry (leather); to rob.
  • ehtte- to eat meat.
  • etteeškin beating.
  • ehttig fleshy. [<CT *etlig]
  • ettin- to get well, to recover; to repair, to mend; to be corrected; ooŋ balïğ xolu ettine bergen his wounded hand got well; xevin ettin- to mend one’s clothes; ooŋ tenek aažï-čaŋï ettine bergen his foolish behaviour was corrected.
  • ettin- [ehttin-] (of a gun) to inadvertently fire; to blurt out, to let slip (a word); boo ettine bergen the gun inadvertently fired; sös ettine bergen s/he blurted out words; beš ettine boo a gun containing five charges.
  • eveeš small, minor, a little, a bit.
  • eveeže- to decrease, to dimisish, to decline, to become less.
  • eveežet- to decrease, to reduce, to lessen.
  • eveežettin- to decrease, to dimisish, to decline, to become less.
  • eveežettinig minuend (in mathematics).
  • evegen naked, nude, bald.
  • eves it is not, not, not being; kïzïl eves (it is) not red; sen eves (it is) not you; ïndïg eves it is not so; uluğ eves imeniye an estate that is not big; Belek kelgen eves Belek did not come after all; bir eves if; monu kïlgan kiži Čïlbak eves pe? isn’t Čïlbak the person who has done this?; kiži kelgen eves pe barïp köreyn let me go see whether someone has come; kïm ažar eves, xürežiilem čee come on, let the two of us wrestle, and see who will win; kiži eves kiži nasty person, sly person. [<*emez <*ermez]
  • evespe mind you, you know, don’t forget, isn’t it, right, so; komsomol xuralï bolur evespe there will be a meeting of the komsomol, you know; duun čanïp kelgen evespe s/he returned yesterday, you know.
  • evilel league, union. [LM eblel]
  • evileŋ polite, courteous, gentle.
  • eze- to yawn.
  • ezeergek aggressive, tyrannical; aggressor, tyrant; ezeergek yozu tyrany.
  • ezeŋgi stirrup. [<NE *ezeŋgi]
  • ezeŋgileeš metatarsus.
  • ezer saddle; ezer bažï pommel; ezer söögü saddle tree. [<CT *eder]
  • ezerte- to saddle. [<NT *ederte-]
  • ezil- (estir) to melt, to become molten.
  • ezim forest.
  • ezir [ehzir] eagle. [<CT *esiri]
  • eziri- to become or be drunk. [<CT *esür-]
  • ezirik drunk. [<CT *esürük]
  • ezirik kid, a small goat.
  • ezirt- to make drunk. [<CT *esürt-]
  • eže- to make a pair.
  • ežele- to take up, to take over. [LM eĵele-]
  • eželekči agressor, usurper. [LM eĵelegeči]
  • ežen ruler, lord, sovereign. [LM eĵen]
  • ežeš a pair, a couple.
  • ežik door. [<CT *e:šik]
  • ežikkey pal, buddy, friend.
  • ežin- (eštir) to float, to swim; to take a bath.
  • ežindiriiškin swimming, bathing.
  • ežiškiler friends.