Difference between revisions of "Lesson 3"

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[[Category:Lessons]]
 
[[Category:Lessons]]
<H1>Тыва Дыл Үшкү Kичээл</H1>
+
=Tyvan Lesson 3: Describing Things - Тыва Дыл Үшкү Kичээл=
<H1>Tyvan Lesson 3: Describing Things</H1>
+
==Dialog - Чугаалажыр==
<H1>Dialog - Чугаалажыр</H1>
+
{| CELLSPACING=0 CELLPADDING=5 BORDER=0
<TABLE CELLSPACING=0 CELLPADDING=5 BORDER=0>
+
|-
  <TBODY>
+
|Олар чүл?
  <TR>
+
|Olar сhül?
 
+
|-
    <TD>Олар чүл?</TD>
+
|Олар аъттар-дыр.
    <TD>Olar сhül?</TD>
+
|Olar a'ttar-dyr.
    <TD>What are those?</TD>
+
|-
  </TR>
+
|Кандыг аъттар?
  <TR>
+
|Kandyg a'ttar?
    <TD>Олар аъттар-дыр.</TD>
+
|-
    <TD>Olar a'ttar-dyr.</TD>
+
|Олар хүрең аъттар-дыр.
 
+
|Olar khüreŋ a'ttar-dyr.
    <TD>Those are horses.</TD></TR>
+
|-
  <TR>
+
|Каш аъттар?
    <TD>Кандыг аъттар?</TD>
+
|Kash a'ttar?
    <TD>Kandyg a'ttar?</TD>
+
|-
    <TD>What kind of horses?</TD></TR>
+
|Чеди аъттар.
  <TR>
+
|Chedi a'ttar.
    <TD>Олар хүрең аъттар-дыр.</TD>
+
|-
 
+
|Болар чүл?
    <TD>Olar khüreŋ a'ttar-dyr.</TD>
+
|Bolar chül?
    <TD>Those are brown horses.</TD></TR>
+
|-
  <TR>
+
|Бо эрги номнар-дыр.
    <TD>Каш аъттар?</TD>
+
|Bo ergi nomnar-dyr.
    <TD>Kash a'ttar?</TD>
+
|-
    <TD>How many horses are there?</TD></TR>
+
|Олар-биле?
 +
|Olar-bile?
 +
|-
 +
|Олар чаа номнар-дыр.
 +
|Olar chaa nomnar-dyr.
 +
|}
  
  <TR>
+
==Vocabulary - Сөстер==
    <TD>Чеди аъттар.</TD>
+
====Colors====
    <TD>Chedi a'ttar.</TD>
 
    <TD>There are seven horses.</TD></TR>
 
  <TR>
 
    <TD>Болар чүл?</TD>
 
    <TD>Bolar chül?</TD>
 
  
    <TD>What are these?</TD>
 
  </TR>
 
  <TR>
 
    <TD>Бо эрги номнар-дыр.</TD>
 
    <TD>Bo ergi nomnar-dyr.</TD>
 
    <TD>These are old books.</TD></TR>
 
  <TR>
 
 
    <TD>Олар-биле?</TD>
 
    <TD>Olar-bile?</TD>
 
    <TD>And those?</TD>
 
  </TR>
 
  <TR>
 
    <TD>Олар чаа номнар-дыр.</TD>
 
    <TD>Olar chaa nomnar-dyr.</TD>
 
 
    <TD>Those are new books.</TD></TR></TBODY></TABLE>
 
<H2>Vocabulary - Сөстер</H2>
 
<H4>Colors</H4>
 
 
<TABLE BORDERCOLOR=#000000 CELLSPACING=0 CELLPADDING=5 BORDER=1>
 
<TABLE BORDERCOLOR=#000000 CELLSPACING=0 CELLPADDING=5 BORDER=1>
 
   <TBODY>
 
   <TBODY>
Line 100: Line 81:
 
     <TD>ökpeŋ</TD>
 
     <TD>ökpeŋ</TD>
 
     <TD>jagaan</TD></TR></TBODY></TABLE>
 
     <TD>jagaan</TD></TR></TBODY></TABLE>
<H4>Numbers 1-10 - Саннар</H4>
+
====Numbers 1-10 - Саннар====
  
 
<TABLE BORDERCOLOR=#000000 CELLSPACING=0 CELLPADDING=5 BORDER=1>
 
<TABLE BORDERCOLOR=#000000 CELLSPACING=0 CELLPADDING=5 BORDER=1>
Line 142: Line 123:
 
     <TD>tos</TD>
 
     <TD>tos</TD>
 
     <TD>on</TD></TR></TBODY></TABLE>
 
     <TD>on</TD></TR></TBODY></TABLE>
<H4>More Adjectives</H4>
+
====More Adjectives====
 
<TABLE BORDERCOLOR=#000000 CELLSPACING=0 CELLPADDING=5 BORDER=1>
 
<TABLE BORDERCOLOR=#000000 CELLSPACING=0 CELLPADDING=5 BORDER=1>
 
   <TBODY>
 
   <TBODY>
Line 149: Line 130:
 
     <TD>улуг<BR>биче</TD>
 
     <TD>улуг<BR>биче</TD>
 
     <TD>ulug/biche</TD>
 
     <TD>ulug/biche</TD>
    <TD>big/small</TD></TR>
 
 
   <TR>
 
   <TR>
 
     <TD>аныяк <BR>кырган</TD>
 
     <TD>аныяк <BR>кырган</TD>
  
 
     <TD>anyjak/kyrgan</TD>
 
     <TD>anyjak/kyrgan</TD>
    <TD>young/old</TD></TR>
+
 
 
   <TR>
 
   <TR>
 
     <TD>бедик<BR>чавыс </TD>
 
     <TD>бедик<BR>чавыс </TD>
 
     <TD>bedik/chavys</TD>
 
     <TD>bedik/chavys</TD>
    <TD>tall/short</TD></TR>
+
 
  
 
   <TR>
 
   <TR>
 
     <TD>узун<BR>чолдак</TD>
 
     <TD>узун<BR>чолдак</TD>
 
     <TD>uzun/choldak</TD>
 
     <TD>uzun/choldak</TD>
    <TD>long/short</TD></TR>
+
 
 
   <TR>
 
   <TR>
 
     <TD>борбак<BR>калбак</TD>
 
     <TD>борбак<BR>калбак</TD>
  
 
     <TD>borbak/kalbak</TD>
 
     <TD>borbak/kalbak</TD>
    <TD>round/flat</TD></TR>
+
 
 
   <TR>
 
   <TR>
 
     <TD>чаа<BR>эрги</TD>
 
     <TD>чаа<BR>эрги</TD>
 
     <TD>chaa/ergi</TD>
 
     <TD>chaa/ergi</TD>
    <TD>new/old</TD></TR>
+
 
  
 
   <TR>
 
   <TR>
 
     <TD>делгем<BR>кызаа</TD>
 
     <TD>делгем<BR>кызаа</TD>
 
     <TD>delgem/kyzaa</TD>
 
     <TD>delgem/kyzaa</TD>
    <TD>broad/narrow</TD></TR>
+
 
 
   <TR>
 
   <TR>
 
     <TD>изиг<BR>чылыг<BR>соок </TD>
 
     <TD>изиг<BR>чылыг<BR>соок </TD>
  
 
     <TD>izig/chylyg/sook</TD>
 
     <TD>izig/chylyg/sook</TD>
    <TD>hot/warm/cold</TD></TR>
+
 
 
   <TR>
 
   <TR>
 
     <TD>хоглүг<BR>чалгааранчыг </TD>
 
     <TD>хоглүг<BR>чалгааранчыг </TD>
     <TD>khoglu:g/chalgaaranchyg</TD>
+
     <TD>khoglüg/chalgaaranchyg</TD>
    <TD>happy/sad</TD></TR>
+
 
  
 
   <TR>
 
   <TR>
 
     <TD>семис<BR>арган</TD>
 
     <TD>семис<BR>арган</TD>
 
     <TD>semis/argan</TD>
 
     <TD>semis/argan</TD>
    <TD>fat/skinny</TD></TR>
+
 
 
   <TR>
 
   <TR>
 
     <TD>чараш</TD>
 
     <TD>чараш</TD>
  
 
     <TD>charash/?</TD>
 
     <TD>charash/?</TD>
     <TD>beautiful/ugly</TD></TR></TBODY></TABLE>
+
     </TR></TBODY></TABLE>
<H2>Grammar - Дүрүмнери</H2>
+
 
<H3>Pronouns - ат орнулар</H3>
+
==Grammar - Дүрүмнери==
<P>The following chart shows the nominative pronouns. Tyvan does not have  
+
===Pronouns - ат орнулар===
grammatical gender so instead of three different words for he, she, and it, only  
+
 
one word (ol) is used.</P>
+
The following chart shows the nominative pronouns. Tyvan does not have grammatical gender so instead of three different words for he, she, and it, only one word (ol) is used.
 +
 
 
<TABLE BORDERCOLOR=#000000 CELLSPACING=0 CELLPADDING=5 WIDTH="75%" BORDER=1>
 
<TABLE BORDERCOLOR=#000000 CELLSPACING=0 CELLPADDING=5 WIDTH="75%" BORDER=1>
 
   <TBODY>
 
   <TBODY>
Line 232: Line 213:
 
     <TD>olar</TD>
 
     <TD>olar</TD>
 
     <TD>they</TD></TR></TBODY></TABLE>
 
     <TD>they</TD></TR></TBODY></TABLE>
<P>Many languages have polite forms of address and Tyvan is no exception. Use  
+
 
'siler' for 'you' when speaking to strangers, elders, or others who you are not  
+
Many languages have polite forms of address and Tyvan is no exception. Use 'siler' for 'you' when speaking to strangers, elders, or others who you are not on familiar terms with. Siler is also used as a plural pronoun.
on familiar terms with. Siler is also used as a plural pronoun.</P>
+
 
<H3>Noun Plurals - Хойнуң саны чүве ади</H3>
+
===Noun Plurals - Хойнуң саны чүве ади===
<P>The plural suffix has several different forms depending upon vowel harmony  
+
 
and consonant assimilation. It utilizes front/back vowel harmony. The following  
+
The plural suffix has several different forms depending upon vowel harmony and consonant assimilation. It utilizes front/back vowel harmony. The following chart shows examples of the relationship between the sound at the end of words and the consonant to begin the plural suffix with.
chart shows examples of the relationship between the sound at the end of words  
 
and the consonant to begin the plural suffix with.</P>
 
  
 
<TABLE BORDERCOLOR=#000000 CELLSPACING=0 CELLPADDING=5 BORDER=1>
 
<TABLE BORDERCOLOR=#000000 CELLSPACING=0 CELLPADDING=5 BORDER=1>
Line 295: Line 274:
 
     <TD>-тар</TD>
 
     <TD>-тар</TD>
 
     <TD>аъттар</TD></TR></TBODY></TABLE>
 
     <TD>аъттар</TD></TR></TBODY></TABLE>
<H3>Word Order</H3>
+
 
<P>Adjectives usually come before nouns. Adjectives do not have a plural  
+
===Word Order===
agreement with the plural nouns they modify.</P>
+
Adjectives usually come before nouns. Adjectives do not have a plural agreement with the plural nouns they modify.
 +
 
 
<TABLE BORDERCOLOR=#000000 CELLSPACING=0 CELLPADDING=5 BORDER=1>
 
<TABLE BORDERCOLOR=#000000 CELLSPACING=0 CELLPADDING=5 BORDER=1>
 
   <TBODY>
 
   <TBODY>
Line 319: Line 299:
  
 
     <TD>black cat</TD></TR></TBODY></TABLE>
 
     <TD>black cat</TD></TR></TBODY></TABLE>
<P>In full names, the family name comes before the given name. In this way, the  
+
 
family name is like an adjective and this conforms to the idea that adjectives  
+
In full names, the family name comes before the given name. In this way, the family name is like an adjective and this conforms to the idea that adjectives come before nouns. It's a bit like 'Little John' in English.
come before nouns. It's a bit like 'Little John' in English.</P>
+
 
<P>Koshkendej Igor<BR>Tamdyn Aldar</P>
+
Koshkendej Igor
<P>Subject - Object - Verb<BR>The basic word order of a Tyvan sentence is SOV.  
+
Tamdyn Aldar
Compare this with English SVO. If you used Tyvan word order when speaking  
+
 
English, instead of saying 'I bring the pail', it would be 'I the pail bring'.  
+
Subject - Object - Verb
</P>
+
The basic word order of a Tyvan sentence is SOV. Compare this with English SVO. If you used Tyvan word order when speaking English, instead of saying 'I bring the pail', it would be 'I the pail bring'.  
<P>The person/number indicator.<BR>In a lot of languages, the verb is conjugated  
+
 
to indicate the person (first, second, third) and number (singular, plural) of  
+
The person/number indicator.<BR>In a lot of languages, the verb is conjugated to indicate the person (first, second, third) and number (singular, plural) of the subject. This also occurs in Tyvan, but most of the time it doesn't. Therefore the verb needs a word after it in order to communicate this  
the subject. This also occurs in Tyvan, but most of the time it doesn't.  
+
information. This word is called the person/number indicator, and luckily, it is the same as the pronouns: men, sen, siler, etc. In the below example, you can see the first word is the Subject of the sentence, the second word is the Object, and the final word is the Person/Number Indicator. In this case, -dir is acting like the verb 'to be'.
Therefore the verb needs a word after it in order to communicate this  
+
 
information. This word is called the person/number indicator, and luckily, it is  
 
the same as the pronouns: men, sen, siler, etc. In the below example, you can  
 
see the first word is the Subject of the sentence, the second word is the  
 
Object, and the final word is the Person/Number Indicator. In this case, -dir is  
 
acting like the verb 'to be'.</P>
 
 
<TABLE BORDERCOLOR=#000000 CELLSPACING=0 CELLPADDING=5 BORDER=1>
 
<TABLE BORDERCOLOR=#000000 CELLSPACING=0 CELLPADDING=5 BORDER=1>
 
   <TBODY>
 
   <TBODY>
Line 352: Line 327:
 
     <TD>Stacey</TD>
 
     <TD>Stacey</TD>
 
     <TD>am</TD></TR></TBODY></TABLE>
 
     <TD>am</TD></TR></TBODY></TABLE>
<P>In sentences with the third person (ol and olar), we don't need to use the  
+
 
person/number indicator.</P>
+
In sentences with the third person (ol and olar), we don't need to use the person/number indicator.
 +
 
 
<TABLE BORDERCOLOR=#000000 CELLSPACING=0 CELLPADDING=5 BORDER=1>
 
<TABLE BORDERCOLOR=#000000 CELLSPACING=0 CELLPADDING=5 BORDER=1>
  
Line 370: Line 346:
 
     <TD>shaman</TD>
 
     <TD>shaman</TD>
 
<TD>is</TD></TR></TBODY></TABLE>
 
<TD>is</TD></TR></TBODY></TABLE>
<H3>Interrogative Pronouns - Айтытыгның ат орнулар</H3>
+
 
 +
===Interrogative Pronouns - Айтытыгның ат орнулар===
  
 
<TABLE BORDERCOLOR=#000000 CELLSPACING=0 CELLPADDING=4 BORDER=1>
 
<TABLE BORDERCOLOR=#000000 CELLSPACING=0 CELLPADDING=4 BORDER=1>
Line 376: Line 353:
 
   <TR>
 
   <TR>
 
     <TD><B>Кымыл - Who is it?<BR>Кандыг</B></TD></TR></TBODY></TABLE>
 
     <TD><B>Кымыл - Who is it?<BR>Кандыг</B></TD></TR></TBODY></TABLE>
<H4>Who is it?</H4>
+
 
 +
====Who is it?====
 
<TABLE CELLSPACING=0 CELLPADDING=5 WIDTH="75%" BORDER=0>
 
<TABLE CELLSPACING=0 CELLPADDING=5 WIDTH="75%" BORDER=0>
 
   <TBODY>
 
   <TBODY>
Line 398: Line 376:
  
 
     <TD>It's him (her, it).</TD></TR></TBODY></TABLE>
 
     <TD>It's him (her, it).</TD></TR></TBODY></TABLE>
<P>&nbsp;</P>
+
 
 
<TABLE BORDERCOLOR=#000000 CELLSPACING=0 CELLPADDING=4 BORDER=1>
 
<TABLE BORDERCOLOR=#000000 CELLSPACING=0 CELLPADDING=4 BORDER=1>
 
   <TBODY>
 
   <TBODY>
 
   <TR>
 
   <TR>
 
     <TD><B>Каш - How many?</B></TD></TR></TBODY></TABLE>
 
     <TD><B>Каш - How many?</B></TD></TR></TBODY></TABLE>
<P>&nbsp;</P>
+
 
 
<TABLE WIDTH="75%" BORDER=0>
 
<TABLE WIDTH="75%" BORDER=0>
 
   <TBODY>
 
   <TBODY>
Line 422: Line 400:
  
 
     <TD>How many doctors?<BR>Six doctors.</TD></TR></TBODY></TABLE>
 
     <TD>How many doctors?<BR>Six doctors.</TD></TR></TBODY></TABLE>
<P>&nbsp;</P>
+
 
<P>Practice </P>
+
==Practice==

Revision as of 03:30, 13 December 2006

Tyvan Lesson 3: Describing Things - Тыва Дыл Үшкү Kичээл

Dialog - Чугаалажыр

Олар чүл? Olar сhül?
Олар аъттар-дыр. Olar a'ttar-dyr.
Кандыг аъттар? Kandyg a'ttar?
Олар хүрең аъттар-дыр. Olar khüreŋ a'ttar-dyr.
Каш аъттар? Kash a'ttar?
Чеди аъттар. Chedi a'ttar.
Болар чүл? Bolar chül?
Бо эрги номнар-дыр. Bo ergi nomnar-dyr.
Олар-биле? Olar-bile?
Олар чаа номнар-дыр. Olar chaa nomnar-dyr.

Vocabulary - Сөстер

Colors

<TBODY> </TBODY>
                     
хүрең кара ак кызыл кызыл-сарыг сарыг ногаан ягаан-көк көк өкпең ягаан
khüreŋ kara ak kyzyl kyzyl-saryg saryg nogaan jagaan-kök kök ökpeŋ jagaan

Numbers 1-10 - Саннар

<TBODY> </TBODY>
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
бир ийи үш дөрт беш алды чеди сес тос он
bir iji üsh dört besh aldy chedi ses tos on

More Adjectives

<TBODY>




</TBODY>
улуг
биче
ulug/biche
аныяк
кырган
anyjak/kyrgan
бедик
чавыс
bedik/chavys
узун
чолдак
uzun/choldak
борбак
калбак
borbak/kalbak
чаа
эрги
chaa/ergi
делгем
кызаа
delgem/kyzaa
изиг
чылыг
соок
izig/chylyg/sook
хоглүг
чалгааранчыг
khoglüg/chalgaaranchyg
семис
арган
semis/argan
чараш charash/?

Grammar - Дүрүмнери

Pronouns - ат орнулар

The following chart shows the nominative pronouns. Tyvan does not have grammatical gender so instead of three different words for he, she, and it, only one word (ol) is used.

<TBODY> </TBODY>
мен men I
сен (силер) sen (siler) you (or polite you)
ол ol he, she, it
бис bis us
силер siler you all
олар olar they

Many languages have polite forms of address and Tyvan is no exception. Use 'siler' for 'you' when speaking to strangers, elders, or others who you are not on familiar terms with. Siler is also used as a plural pronoun.

Noun Plurals - Хойнуң саны чүве ади

The plural suffix has several different forms depending upon vowel harmony and consonant assimilation. It utilizes front/back vowel harmony. The following chart shows examples of the relationship between the sound at the end of words and the consonant to begin the plural suffix with.

<TBODY> </TBODY>
For words that end in a vowel or р г й, use лер/лар. Front words чер (land) -лер черлер
Back words тыва (tyva) -лар тывалар
For words that end in a nasal (м н ң), use нер/нар. Front words хүн (day) -нер хүннер
Back words ном (book) -нар номнар
For words that end in л, use дер/дар. Front words өреел (room) -дер өреелдер
Back words хол (hand) -дар холдар
For words that end in a voiceless consonant (т п с ш к ч), use тер/тар. Front words инек (cow) -тер инектер
Back words аът (horse) -тар аъттар

Word Order

Adjectives usually come before nouns. Adjectives do not have a plural agreement with the plural nouns they modify.

<TBODY> </TBODY>
көк куш kok kush blue bird
ногаан куштар nogaan kushtar green birds
ак аъттар ak a'ttar white horses
кара диис kara diis black cat

In full names, the family name comes before the given name. In this way, the family name is like an adjective and this conforms to the idea that adjectives come before nouns. It's a bit like 'Little John' in English.

Koshkendej Igor Tamdyn Aldar

Subject - Object - Verb The basic word order of a Tyvan sentence is SOV. Compare this with English SVO. If you used Tyvan word order when speaking English, instead of saying 'I bring the pail', it would be 'I the pail bring'.

The person/number indicator.
In a lot of languages, the verb is conjugated to indicate the person (first, second, third) and number (singular, plural) of the subject. This also occurs in Tyvan, but most of the time it doesn't. Therefore the verb needs a word after it in order to communicate this information. This word is called the person/number indicator, and luckily, it is the same as the pronouns: men, sen, siler, etc. In the below example, you can see the first word is the Subject of the sentence, the second word is the Object, and the final word is the Person/Number Indicator. In this case, -dir is acting like the verb 'to be'.

<TBODY> </TBODY>
Subject Object Verb + Person/Number Indicator
Men Stacey -dir men
I Stacey am

In sentences with the third person (ol and olar), we don't need to use the person/number indicator.

<TBODY> </TBODY>
Subject Object Verb
Ol kham -dyr
He shaman is

Interrogative Pronouns - Айтытыгның ат орнулар

<TBODY> </TBODY>
Кымыл - Who is it?
Кандыг

Who is it?

<TBODY> </TBODY>
Кымыл? Kymyl? Who is it?
Ол эмчи-дир. Ol emchi-dir. It is the doctor.
Мен-дир мен. Men-dir men. It's me.
Ол-дыр. Ol-dyr. It's him (her, it).
<TBODY> </TBODY>
Каш - How many?
<TBODY> </TBODY>
Каш ном?
Беш ном.

Kash nom?
Besh nom.

How many books?
Five books.
Каш аът?
Дөрт аът.
Kash a't?
Dört a't.
How many horses?
Four horses.
Каш емчи?
Алды емчи.
Kash emchi?
Aldy emchi.
How many doctors?
Six doctors.

Practice