Difference between revisions of "Lesson 3"

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[[Category:Lessons]]
+
{{Lessons}}
=Tyvan Lesson 3: Describing Things - Тыва Дыл Үшкү Kичээл=
+
'''Tyvan Lesson 3: Describing Things - Тыва Дыл Үшкү Kичээл'''
 +
{{Copyright|[[User:Sborsody|Stacey Borsody]]}}
 
==Dialog - Чугаалажыр==
 
==Dialog - Чугаалажыр==
 
{| CELLSPACING=0 CELLPADDING=5 BORDER=0
 
{| CELLSPACING=0 CELLPADDING=5 BORDER=0
Line 38: Line 39:
 
====Colors====
 
====Colors====
  
<TABLE BORDERCOLOR=#000000 CELLSPACING=0 CELLPADDING=5 BORDER=1>
+
{| BORDERCOLOR=#000000 CELLSPACING=0 CELLPADDING=5 BORDER=1 width="100%"
  <TBODY>
+
|-
  <TR>
+
<!--|BGCOLOR=brown|&nbsp;-->
    <TD BGCOLOR=brown>&nbsp;</TD>
+
|BGCOLOR=black|&nbsp;
    <TD BGCOLOR=black>&nbsp;</TD>
+
|BGCOLOR=white|&nbsp;
    <TD BGCOLOR=white>&nbsp;</TD>
+
|BGCOLOR=red|&nbsp;
 
+
|BGCOLOR=orange|&nbsp;
    <TD BGCOLOR=red>&nbsp;</TD>
+
|BGCOLOR=yellow|&nbsp;
    <TD BGCOLOR=orange>&nbsp;</TD>
+
|BGCOLOR=green|&nbsp;
    <TD BGCOLOR=yellow>&nbsp;</TD>
+
<!--|BGCOLOR=lightblue|&nbsp;
    <TD BGCOLOR=green>&nbsp;</TD>
+
|BGCOLOR=turquoise|&nbsp;-->
    <TD BGCOLOR=turquoise>&nbsp;</TD>
+
|BGCOLOR=blue|&nbsp;
    <TD BGCOLOR=blue>&nbsp;</TD>
+
|BGCOLOR=purple|&nbsp;
    <TD BGCOLOR=purple>&nbsp;</TD>
+
<!--|BGCOLOR=pink|&nbsp;-->
    <TD BGCOLOR=pink>&nbsp;</TD></TR>
+
|-
  <TR>
+
<!--|хүрең-->
 
+
|кара
    <TD>хүрең</TD>
+
|ак
    <TD>кара</TD>
+
|кызыл
    <TD>ак</TD>
+
|кызыл-сарыг
    <TD>кызыл</TD>
+
|сарыг
    <TD>кызыл-сарыг</TD>
+
|ногаан
    <TD>сарыг</TD>
+
<!--|ак-көк
 
+
|ягаан-көк-->
    <TD>ногаан</TD>
+
|көк
    <TD>ягаан-көк</TD>
+
|өкпең
    <TD>көк</TD>
+
<!--|ягаан-->
    <TD>өкпең</TD>
+
|-
    <TD>ягаан</TD></TR>
+
<!--|khüreŋ-->
  <TR>
+
|kara
 +
|ak
 +
|kyzyl
 +
|kyzyl-saryg
 +
|saryg
 +
|nogaan
 +
<!--|ak-kök
 +
|jagaan-kök-->
 +
|kök
 +
|ökpeŋ
 +
<!--|jagaan-->
 +
|}
  
    <TD>khüreŋ</TD>
 
    <TD>kara</TD>
 
    <TD>ak</TD>
 
    <TD>kyzyl</TD>
 
    <TD>kyzyl-saryg</TD>
 
    <TD>saryg</TD>
 
 
    <TD>nogaan</TD>
 
    <TD>jagaan-kök</TD>
 
    <TD>kök</TD>
 
    <TD>ökpeŋ</TD>
 
    <TD>jagaan</TD></TR></TBODY></TABLE>
 
 
====Numbers 1-10 - Саннар====
 
====Numbers 1-10 - Саннар====
  
<TABLE BORDERCOLOR=#000000 CELLSPACING=0 CELLPADDING=5 BORDER=1>
+
{| BORDERCOLOR=#000000 CELLSPACING=0 CELLPADDING=5 BORDER=1
  <TBODY>
+
|-
  <TR>
+
|1
    <TD>1</TD>
+
|2
    <TD>2</TD>
+
|3
    <TD>3</TD>
+
|4
    <TD>4</TD>
+
|5
 +
|6
 +
|7
 +
|8
 +
|9
 +
|10
 +
|-
 +
|бир
 +
|ийи
 +
|үш
 +
|дөрт
 +
|беш
 +
|алды
 +
|чеди
 +
|сес
 +
|тос
 +
|он
 +
|-
 +
|bir
 +
|iji
 +
|üsh
 +
|dört
 +
|besh
 +
|aldy
 +
|chedi
 +
|ses
 +
|tos
 +
|on
 +
|}
  
    <TD>5</TD>
 
    <TD>6</TD>
 
    <TD>7</TD>
 
    <TD>8</TD>
 
    <TD>9</TD>
 
    <TD>10</TD></TR>
 
 
  <TR>
 
    <TD>бир</TD>
 
    <TD>ийи</TD>
 
    <TD>үш</TD>
 
    <TD>дөрт</TD>
 
    <TD>беш</TD>
 
 
    <TD>алды</TD>
 
    <TD>чеди</TD>
 
    <TD>сес</TD>
 
    <TD>тос</TD>
 
    <TD>он</TD></TR>
 
  <TR>
 
 
    <TD>bir</TD>
 
    <TD>iji</TD>
 
    <TD>üsh</TD>
 
    <TD>dört</TD>
 
    <TD>besh</TD>
 
    <TD>aldy</TD>
 
 
    <TD>chedi</TD>
 
    <TD>ses</TD>
 
    <TD>tos</TD>
 
    <TD>on</TD></TR></TBODY></TABLE>
 
 
====More Adjectives====
 
====More Adjectives====
<TABLE BORDERCOLOR=#000000 CELLSPACING=0 CELLPADDING=5 BORDER=1>
+
{| BORDERCOLOR=#000000 CELLSPACING=0 CELLPADDING=5 BORDER=1
  <TBODY>
+
|-
 
+
|улуг<BR>биче
  <TR>
+
|ulug/biche
    <TD>улуг<BR>биче</TD>
+
|-
    <TD>ulug/biche</TD>
+
|аныяк <BR>кырган
  <TR>
+
|anyjak/kyrgan
    <TD>аныяк <BR>кырган</TD>
+
|-
 
+
|бедик<BR>чавыс
    <TD>anyjak/kyrgan</TD>
+
|bedik/chavys
 
+
|-
  <TR>
+
|узун<BR>чолдак
    <TD>бедик<BR>чавыс </TD>
+
|uzun/choldak
    <TD>bedik/chavys</TD>
+
|-
 
+
|борбак<BR>калбак
 
+
|borbak/kalbak
  <TR>
+
|-
    <TD>узун<BR>чолдак</TD>
+
|чаа<BR>эрги
    <TD>uzun/choldak</TD>
+
|chaa/ergi
 
+
|-
  <TR>
+
|делгем<BR>кызаа
    <TD>борбак<BR>калбак</TD>
+
|delgem/kyzaa
 
+
|-
    <TD>borbak/kalbak</TD>
+
|изиг<BR>чылыг<BR>соок
 
+
|izig/chylyg/sook
  <TR>
+
|-
    <TD>чаа<BR>эрги</TD>
+
|хоглүг<BR>чалгааранчыг
    <TD>chaa/ergi</TD>
+
|khoglüg/chalgaaranchyg
 
+
|-
 
+
|семис<BR>арган
  <TR>
+
|semis/argan
    <TD>делгем<BR>кызаа</TD>
+
|}
    <TD>delgem/kyzaa</TD>
 
 
 
  <TR>
 
    <TD>изиг<BR>чылыг<BR>соок </TD>
 
 
 
    <TD>izig/chylyg/sook</TD>
 
 
 
  <TR>
 
    <TD>хоглүг<BR>чалгааранчыг </TD>
 
    <TD>khoglüg/chalgaaranchyg</TD>
 
 
 
 
 
  <TR>
 
    <TD>семис<BR>арган</TD>
 
    <TD>semis/argan</TD>
 
 
 
  <TR>
 
    <TD>чараш</TD>
 
 
 
    <TD>charash/?</TD>
 
    </TR></TBODY></TABLE>
 
  
 
==Grammar - Дүрүмнери==
 
==Grammar - Дүрүмнери==
Line 183: Line 158:
 
The following chart shows the nominative pronouns. Tyvan does not have grammatical gender so instead of three different words for he, she, and it, only one word (ol) is used.
 
The following chart shows the nominative pronouns. Tyvan does not have grammatical gender so instead of three different words for he, she, and it, only one word (ol) is used.
  
<TABLE BORDERCOLOR=#000000 CELLSPACING=0 CELLPADDING=5 WIDTH="75%" BORDER=1>
+
{| BORDERCOLOR=#000000 CELLSPACING=0 CELLPADDING=5 WIDTH="75%" BORDER=1
  <TBODY>
+
|-
  <TR>
+
|'''мен'''
 
+
|men
    <TD><B>мен</B></TD>
+
|I
    <TD>men</TD>
+
|-
    <TD>I</TD></TR>
+
|'''сен (силер)'''
  <TR>
+
|sen (siler)
    <TD><B>сен (силер)</B></TD>
+
|you (or polite you)
    <TD>sen (siler)</TD>
+
|-
 
+
|'''ол'''
    <TD>you (or polite you)</TD></TR>
+
|ol
  <TR>
+
|he, she, it
    <TD><B>ол</B></TD>
+
|-
    <TD>ol</TD>
+
|'''бис'''
    <TD>he, she, it</TD></TR>
+
|bis
  <TR>
+
|us
    <TD><B>бис</B></TD>
+
|-
 
+
|'''силер'''
    <TD>bis</TD>
+
|siler
    <TD>us</TD></TR>
+
|you all
  <TR>
+
|-
    <TD><B>силер</B></TD>
+
|'''олар'''
    <TD>siler</TD>
+
|olar
    <TD>you all</TD></TR>
+
|they
 
+
|}
  <TR>
 
    <TD><B>олар</B></TD>
 
    <TD>olar</TD>
 
    <TD>they</TD></TR></TBODY></TABLE>
 
  
 
Many languages have polite forms of address and Tyvan is no exception. Use 'siler' for 'you' when speaking to strangers, elders, or others who you are not on familiar terms with. Siler is also used as a plural pronoun.
 
Many languages have polite forms of address and Tyvan is no exception. Use 'siler' for 'you' when speaking to strangers, elders, or others who you are not on familiar terms with. Siler is also used as a plural pronoun.
  
===Noun Plurals - Хойнуң саны чүве ади===
+
===Plural nouns - Хойнуң саны чүве ади===
  
 
The plural suffix has several different forms depending upon vowel harmony and consonant assimilation. It utilizes front/back vowel harmony. The following chart shows examples of the relationship between the sound at the end of words and the consonant to begin the plural suffix with.
 
The plural suffix has several different forms depending upon vowel harmony and consonant assimilation. It utilizes front/back vowel harmony. The following chart shows examples of the relationship between the sound at the end of words and the consonant to begin the plural suffix with.
  
<TABLE BORDERCOLOR=#000000 CELLSPACING=0 CELLPADDING=5 BORDER=1>
+
{| BORDERCOLOR=#000000 CELLSPACING=0 CELLPADDING=5 BORDER=1
  <TBODY>
+
|-
  <TR>
+
|ROWSPAN=2|For words that end in a vowel or р г й, use лер/лар.
    <TD ROWSPAN=2>For words that end in a vowel or р г й, use лер/лар.</TD>
+
|Front words
    <TD>Front words</TD>
+
|чер (land)
    <TD>чер (land)</TD>
+
| -лер
    <TD>-лер</TD>
+
|черлер
 +
|-
 +
|Back words
 +
|тыва (tyva)
 +
| -лар
 +
|тывалар
 +
|-
 +
|ROWSPAN=2|For words that end in a nasal (м н ң), use нер/нар.
 +
|Front words
 +
|хүн (day)
 +
| -нер
 +
|хүннер
 +
|-
 +
|Back words
 +
|ном (book)
 +
| -нар
 +
|номнар
 +
|-
 +
|ROWSPAN=2|For words that end in л, use дер/дар.
 +
|Front words
 +
|өреел (room)
 +
| -дер
 +
|өреелдер
 +
|-
 +
|Back words
 +
|хол (hand)
 +
| -дар
 +
|холдар
 +
|-
 +
|ROWSPAN=2|For words that end in a voiceless consonant (т п с ш к ч), use тер/тар.
 +
|Front words
 +
|инек (cow)
 +
| -тер
 +
|инектер
 +
|-
 +
|Back words
 +
|аът (horse)
 +
| -тар
 +
|аъттар
 +
|}
  
    <TD>черлер</TD></TR>
+
===Word Order===
  <TR>
+
====Subject - Object - Verb====
    <TD>Back words</TD>
+
The basic word order of a Tyvan sentence is SOV. Compare this with English SVO. If you used Tyvan word order when speaking English, instead of saying 'I bring the pail', it would be 'I the pail bring'.  
    <TD>тыва (tyva)</TD>
 
    <TD>-лар</TD>
 
    <TD>тывалар</TD></TR>
 
 
 
  <TR>
 
    <TD ROWSPAN=2>For words that end in a nasal (м н ң), use нер/нар.</TD>
 
    <TD>Front words</TD>
 
    <TD>хүн (day)</TD>
 
    <TD>-нер</TD>
 
    <TD>хүннер</TD></TR>
 
 
 
  <TR>
 
    <TD>Back words</TD>
 
    <TD>ном (book)</TD>
 
    <TD>-нар</TD>
 
    <TD>номнар</TD></TR>
 
  <TR>
 
    <TD ROWSPAN=2>For words that end in л, use дер/дар.</TD>
 
  
    <TD>Front words</TD>
+
====Adjectives====
    <TD>өреел (room)</TD>
 
    <TD>-дер</TD>
 
    <TD>өреелдер</TD></TR>
 
  <TR>
 
    <TD>Back words</TD>
 
 
 
    <TD>хол (hand)</TD>
 
    <TD>-дар</TD>
 
    <TD>холдар</TD></TR>
 
  <TR>
 
    <TD ROWSPAN=2>For words that end in a voiceless consonant (т п с ш к ч),
 
      use тер/тар.</TD>
 
    <TD>Front words</TD>
 
 
 
    <TD>инек (cow)</TD>
 
    <TD>-тер</TD>
 
    <TD>инектер</TD></TR>
 
  <TR>
 
    <TD>Back words</TD>
 
    <TD>аът (horse)</TD>
 
 
 
    <TD>-тар</TD>
 
    <TD>аъттар</TD></TR></TBODY></TABLE>
 
 
 
===Word Order===
 
 
Adjectives usually come before nouns. Adjectives do not have a plural agreement with the plural nouns they modify.
 
Adjectives usually come before nouns. Adjectives do not have a plural agreement with the plural nouns they modify.
  
<TABLE BORDERCOLOR=#000000 CELLSPACING=0 CELLPADDING=5 BORDER=1>
+
{| BORDERCOLOR=#000000 CELLSPACING=0 CELLPADDING=5 BORDER=1
  <TBODY>
+
|-
  <TR>
+
|көк куш
    <TD>көк куш</TD>
+
|kok kush
 +
|blue bird
 +
|-
 +
|ногаан куштар
 +
|nogaan kushtar
 +
|green birds
 +
|-
 +
|ак аъттар
 +
|ak a'ttar
 +
|white horses
 +
|-
 +
|кара диис
 +
|kara diis
 +
|black cat
 +
|}
  
    <TD>kok kush</TD>
+
====Names====
    <TD>blue bird</TD></TR>
+
In full names, the family name comes before the given name. In this way, the family name behaves like an adjective.  This conforms to the idea that adjectives come before nouns.  Think of the character 'Little John' from the English Robin Hood story.
  <TR>
 
    <TD>ногаан куштар</TD>
 
    <TD>nogaan kushtar</TD>
 
    <TD>green birds</TD></TR>
 
  
  <TR>
+
*Koshkendej Igor
    <TD>ак аъттар</TD>
+
*Tamdyn Aldar
    <TD>ak a'ttar</TD>
 
    <TD>white horses</TD></TR>
 
  <TR>
 
    <TD>кара диис</TD>
 
    <TD>kara diis</TD>
 
  
    <TD>black cat</TD></TR></TBODY></TABLE>
+
===The person/number indicator===
 +
In other languages you may have studied, the verb is conjugated to indicate the person (first, second, or third) and number (singular or plural) of the subject. This also occurs in Tyvan, but not always. In these cases the verb needs a word after it in order to communicate this information. This word is called the person/number indicator.  It is the same as the pronouns: men, sen, siler, etc. In the below example, you can see the first word is the Subject of the sentence, the second word is the Object, and the final word is the Person/Number Indicator. In this case, -dir is acting like the verb 'to be'.
  
In full names, the family name comes before the given name. In this way, the family name is like an adjective and this conforms to the idea that adjectives come before nouns. It's a bit like 'Little John' in English.
+
{| BORDERCOLOR=#000000 CELLSPACING=0 CELLPADDING=5 BORDER=1
 
+
|-
Koshkendej Igor
+
!Subject
Tamdyn Aldar
+
!Object
 
+
!Verb + Person/Number Indicator
Subject - Object - Verb
+
|-
The basic word order of a Tyvan sentence is SOV. Compare this with English SVO. If you used Tyvan word order when speaking English, instead of saying 'I bring the pail', it would be 'I the pail bring'.
+
|Men
 
+
|Stacey
The person/number indicator.<BR>In a lot of languages, the verb is conjugated to indicate the person (first, second, third) and number (singular, plural) of the subject. This also occurs in Tyvan, but most of the time it doesn't. Therefore the verb needs a word after it in order to communicate this
+
| -dir men
information. This word is called the person/number indicator, and luckily, it is the same as the pronouns: men, sen, siler, etc. In the below example, you can see the first word is the Subject of the sentence, the second word is the Object, and the final word is the Person/Number Indicator. In this case, -dir is acting like the verb 'to be'.
+
|-
 
+
|I
<TABLE BORDERCOLOR=#000000 CELLSPACING=0 CELLPADDING=5 BORDER=1>
+
|Stacey
  <TBODY>
+
|am
 
+
|}
  <TR>
 
    <TD><B>Subject</B></TD>
 
    <TD><B>Object</B></TD>
 
    <TD><B>Verb + Person/Number Indicator</B></TD></TR>
 
  <TR>
 
    <TD>Men</TD>
 
    <TD>Stacey</TD>
 
 
 
    <TD>-dir men</TD></TR>
 
  <TR>
 
    <TD>I</TD>
 
    <TD>Stacey</TD>
 
    <TD>am</TD></TR></TBODY></TABLE>
 
  
 
In sentences with the third person (ol and olar), we don't need to use the person/number indicator.
 
In sentences with the third person (ol and olar), we don't need to use the person/number indicator.
  
<TABLE BORDERCOLOR=#000000 CELLSPACING=0 CELLPADDING=5 BORDER=1>
+
{| BORDERCOLOR=#000000 CELLSPACING=0 CELLPADDING=5 BORDER=1
 
+
|-
  <TBODY>
+
!Subject
  <TR>
+
!Object
    <TD><B>Subject</B></TD>
+
!Verb
    <TD><B>Object</B></TD>
+
|-
    <TD><B>Verb</B></TD></TR>
+
|Ol
  <TR>
+
|kham
    <TD>Ol</TD>
+
| -dyr
 
+
|-
    <TD>kham</TD>
+
|He
    <TD>-dyr</TD></TR>
+
|shaman
  <TR>
+
|is
    <TD>He</TD>
+
|}
    <TD>shaman</TD>
 
<TD>is</TD></TR></TBODY></TABLE>
 
  
 
===Interrogative Pronouns - Айтытыгның ат орнулар===
 
===Interrogative Pronouns - Айтытыгның ат орнулар===
  
<TABLE BORDERCOLOR=#000000 CELLSPACING=0 CELLPADDING=4 BORDER=1>
+
{| BORDERCOLOR=#000000 CELLSPACING=0 CELLPADDING=4 BORDER=1
  <TBODY>
+
|-
  <TR>
+
!Кымыл - Who is it?<BR>Кандыг
    <TD><B>Кымыл - Who is it?<BR>Кандыг</B></TD></TR></TBODY></TABLE>
+
|}
  
====Who is it?====
+
{| CELLSPACING=0 CELLPADDING=5 WIDTH="75%" BORDER=0
<TABLE CELLSPACING=0 CELLPADDING=5 WIDTH="75%" BORDER=0>
+
|-
  <TBODY>
+
|Кымыл?
  <TR>
+
|Kymyl?
    <TD>Кымыл?</TD>
+
|Who is it?
 +
|-
 +
|Ол эмчи-дир.
 +
|Ol emchi-dir.
 +
|It is the doctor.
 +
|-
 +
|Мен-дир мен.
 +
|Men-dir men.
 +
|It's me.
 +
|-
 +
|Ол-дыр.
 +
|Ol-dyr.
 +
|It's him (her, it).
 +
|}
  
    <TD>Kymyl?</TD>
+
{| BORDERCOLOR=#000000 CELLSPACING=0 CELLPADDING=4 BORDER=1
    <TD>Who is it?</TD></TR>
+
|-
  <TR>
+
!Каш - How many?
    <TD>Ол эмчи-дир.</TD>
+
|}
    <TD>Ol emchi-dir.</TD>
 
    <TD>It is the doctor.</TD></TR>
 
  
  <TR>
+
{| WIDTH="75%" BORDER=0
    <TD>Мен-дир мен.</TD>
+
|-
    <TD>Men-dir men.</TD>
+
|Каш ном?<BR>Беш ном.
    <TD>It's me.</TD></TR>
+
|Kash nom?<BR>Besh nom
  <TR>
+
|How many books?<BR>Five books.
    <TD>Ол-дыр.</TD>
+
|-
    <TD>Ol-dyr.</TD>
+
|Каш аът?<BR>Дөрт аът.
 
+
|Kash a't?<BR>Dört a't.
    <TD>It's him (her, it).</TD></TR></TBODY></TABLE>
+
|How many horses?<BR>Four horses.
 
+
|-
<TABLE BORDERCOLOR=#000000 CELLSPACING=0 CELLPADDING=4 BORDER=1>
+
|Каш емчи?<BR>Алды емчи.
  <TBODY>
+
|Kash emchi?<BR>Aldy emchi.
  <TR>
+
|How many doctors?<BR>Six doctors.
    <TD><B>Каш - How many?</B></TD></TR></TBODY></TABLE>
+
|}
 
 
<TABLE WIDTH="75%" BORDER=0>
 
  <TBODY>
 
  <TR>
 
 
 
    <TD>Каш ном?<BR>Беш ном.</TD>
 
    <TD>
 
      <P>Kash nom?<BR>Besh nom.</P></TD>
 
    <TD>How many books?<BR>Five books.</TD></TR>
 
  <TR>
 
    <TD>Каш аът?<BR>Дөрт аът.</TD>
 
 
 
    <TD>Kash a't?<BR>Dört a't.</TD>
 
    <TD>How many horses?<BR>Four horses.</TD></TR>
 
  <TR>
 
    <TD>Каш емчи?<BR>Алды емчи.</TD>
 
    <TD>Kash emchi?<BR>Aldy emchi.</TD>
 
 
 
    <TD>How many doctors?<BR>Six doctors.</TD></TR></TBODY></TABLE>
 
  
 
==Practice==
 
==Practice==

Latest revision as of 18:54, 13 December 2006

Тыва Дыл Kичээллер
Lesson 0 Lesson 1 Lesson 2 Lesson 3 Lesson 4

Tyvan Lesson 3: Describing Things - Тыва Дыл Үшкү Kичээл

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by Stacey Borsody
All rights reserved

Dialog - Чугаалажыр

Олар чүл? Olar сhül?
Олар аъттар-дыр. Olar a'ttar-dyr.
Кандыг аъттар? Kandyg a'ttar?
Олар хүрең аъттар-дыр. Olar khüreŋ a'ttar-dyr.
Каш аъттар? Kash a'ttar?
Чеди аъттар. Chedi a'ttar.
Болар чүл? Bolar chül?
Бо эрги номнар-дыр. Bo ergi nomnar-dyr.
Олар-биле? Olar-bile?
Олар чаа номнар-дыр. Olar chaa nomnar-dyr.

Vocabulary - Сөстер

Colors

               
кара ак кызыл кызыл-сарыг сарыг ногаан көк өкпең
kara ak kyzyl kyzyl-saryg saryg nogaan kök ökpeŋ

Numbers 1-10 - Саннар

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
бир ийи үш дөрт беш алды чеди сес тос он
bir iji üsh dört besh aldy chedi ses tos on

More Adjectives

улуг
биче
ulug/biche
аныяк
кырган
anyjak/kyrgan
бедик
чавыс
bedik/chavys
узун
чолдак
uzun/choldak
борбак
калбак
borbak/kalbak
чаа
эрги
chaa/ergi
делгем
кызаа
delgem/kyzaa
изиг
чылыг
соок
izig/chylyg/sook
хоглүг
чалгааранчыг
khoglüg/chalgaaranchyg
семис
арган
semis/argan

Grammar - Дүрүмнери

Pronouns - ат орнулар

The following chart shows the nominative pronouns. Tyvan does not have grammatical gender so instead of three different words for he, she, and it, only one word (ol) is used.

мен men I
сен (силер) sen (siler) you (or polite you)
ол ol he, she, it
бис bis us
силер siler you all
олар olar they

Many languages have polite forms of address and Tyvan is no exception. Use 'siler' for 'you' when speaking to strangers, elders, or others who you are not on familiar terms with. Siler is also used as a plural pronoun.

Plural nouns - Хойнуң саны чүве ади

The plural suffix has several different forms depending upon vowel harmony and consonant assimilation. It utilizes front/back vowel harmony. The following chart shows examples of the relationship between the sound at the end of words and the consonant to begin the plural suffix with.

For words that end in a vowel or р г й, use лер/лар. Front words чер (land) -лер черлер
Back words тыва (tyva) -лар тывалар
For words that end in a nasal (м н ң), use нер/нар. Front words хүн (day) -нер хүннер
Back words ном (book) -нар номнар
For words that end in л, use дер/дар. Front words өреел (room) -дер өреелдер
Back words хол (hand) -дар холдар
For words that end in a voiceless consonant (т п с ш к ч), use тер/тар. Front words инек (cow) -тер инектер
Back words аът (horse) -тар аъттар

Word Order

Subject - Object - Verb

The basic word order of a Tyvan sentence is SOV. Compare this with English SVO. If you used Tyvan word order when speaking English, instead of saying 'I bring the pail', it would be 'I the pail bring'.

Adjectives

Adjectives usually come before nouns. Adjectives do not have a plural agreement with the plural nouns they modify.

көк куш kok kush blue bird
ногаан куштар nogaan kushtar green birds
ак аъттар ak a'ttar white horses
кара диис kara diis black cat

Names

In full names, the family name comes before the given name. In this way, the family name behaves like an adjective. This conforms to the idea that adjectives come before nouns. Think of the character 'Little John' from the English Robin Hood story.

  • Koshkendej Igor
  • Tamdyn Aldar

The person/number indicator

In other languages you may have studied, the verb is conjugated to indicate the person (first, second, or third) and number (singular or plural) of the subject. This also occurs in Tyvan, but not always. In these cases the verb needs a word after it in order to communicate this information. This word is called the person/number indicator. It is the same as the pronouns: men, sen, siler, etc. In the below example, you can see the first word is the Subject of the sentence, the second word is the Object, and the final word is the Person/Number Indicator. In this case, -dir is acting like the verb 'to be'.

Subject Object Verb + Person/Number Indicator
Men Stacey -dir men
I Stacey am

In sentences with the third person (ol and olar), we don't need to use the person/number indicator.

Subject Object Verb
Ol kham -dyr
He shaman is

Interrogative Pronouns - Айтытыгның ат орнулар

Кымыл - Who is it?
Кандыг
Кымыл? Kymyl? Who is it?
Ол эмчи-дир. Ol emchi-dir. It is the doctor.
Мен-дир мен. Men-dir men. It's me.
Ол-дыр. Ol-dyr. It's him (her, it).
Каш - How many?
Каш ном?
Беш ном.
Kash nom?
Besh nom
How many books?
Five books.
Каш аът?
Дөрт аът.
Kash a't?
Dört a't.
How many horses?
Four horses.
Каш емчи?
Алды емчи.
Kash emchi?
Aldy emchi.
How many doctors?
Six doctors.

Practice