Difference between revisions of "Lesson 4"

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[[Category:Lessons]]
 
[[Category:Lessons]]
  
=Тыва Дыл Дөрткү Kичээл Tyvan Lesson 4: More Questions=
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=Tyvan Lesson 4: More Questions - Тыва Дыл Дөрткү Kичээл=
  
<H2>Dialog - Чугаалажыр</H2>
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==Dialog - Чугаалажыр==
 
<TABLE CELLSPACING=0 CELLPADDING=5 BORDER=0>
 
<TABLE CELLSPACING=0 CELLPADDING=5 BORDER=0>
 
   <TBODY>
 
   <TBODY>
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   </TBODY>
 
   </TBODY>
 
</TABLE>
 
</TABLE>
<H2>Vocabulary - Сөстер</H2>
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<H3>Numbers 11-20</H3>
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==Vocabulary - Сөстер==
 +
===Numbers 11-20===
 
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<TABLE BORDERCOLOR=#000000 CELLSPACING=0 CELLPADDING=5 BORDER=1>
 
   <TBODY>
 
   <TBODY>
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   </TBODY>
 
   </TBODY>
 
</TABLE>
 
</TABLE>
<H2>Grammar - Дүрүмнери</H2>
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<H3>Locative Case - Турарының Падежи</H3>
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==Grammar - Дүрүмнери==
 +
===Locative Case - Турарының Падежи===
 
<P>The locative case corresponds to </P>
 
<P>The locative case corresponds to </P>
 
<TABLE BORDER=1 CELLPADDING=5 CELLSPACING=0 BORDERCOLOR=#000000>
 
<TABLE BORDER=1 CELLPADDING=5 CELLSPACING=0 BORDERCOLOR=#000000>
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</TABLE>
 
</TABLE>
 
<P>&nbsp;</P>
 
<P>&nbsp;</P>
<H3> Continuous/Habitual Present Tense</H3>
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===Continuous/Habitual Present Tense===
 
<P>This basic present
 
<P>This basic present
 
   tense uses the auxilliary verb tur- (to stand) in combination with a converb.
 
   tense uses the auxilliary verb tur- (to stand) in combination with a converb.
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<P><B>Note:</B> In plural third person, the use of turlar is optional. It can be used for
 
<P><B>Note:</B> In plural third person, the use of turlar is optional. It can be used for
 
   clarification.</P>
 
   clarification.</P>
<H3>Positive and Negative Present Tense Converb</H3>
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===Positive and Negative Present Tense Converb===
 
<P>The converb shows whether the sentence is positive or negative. For positive,
 
<P>The converb shows whether the sentence is positive or negative. For positive,
 
   take the verb stem and add a -p after any vowels. If the verb stem ends in
 
   take the verb stem and add a -p after any vowels. If the verb stem ends in
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<P>In later lessons, it will be noticed that there are more endings in Tyvan for
 
<P>In later lessons, it will be noticed that there are more endings in Tyvan for
 
   verbs that follow a similar pattern as the chart above.</P>
 
   verbs that follow a similar pattern as the chart above.</P>
<H3>Tur and Turar</H3>
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===Tur and Turar===
 
<P>Turar is used instead of tur for action that is continuous. It would be
 
<P>Turar is used instead of tur for action that is continuous. It would be
 
   for an action that started in the past and is still going on or for an action
 
   for an action that started in the past and is still going on or for an action
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</TABLE>
 
</TABLE>
 
<P>&nbsp;</P>
 
<P>&nbsp;</P>
<H3>Review</H3>
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===Review===
 
<P>&nbsp;</P>
 
<P>&nbsp;</P>

Revision as of 01:44, 13 December 2006


Tyvan Lesson 4: More Questions - Тыва Дыл Дөрткү Kичээл

Dialog - Чугаалажыр

<TBODY> </TBODY>
Кайда чурттап турар силер? Kajda churttap turar siler? Where do you live?
  Men San Franciscoda churttap turar men. I live in San Francisco.
  Kajda azhyldap turarlar? Where do they work?
  Olar Kyzylda azhyldap turarlar. They work in Kyzyl.
  Chuu kylyp tur bis? What are we doing?
  Bis tyva dyl öörenip tur bis. We are studying Tyvan.

Vocabulary - Сөстер

Numbers 11-20

<TBODY> </TBODY>
11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
он бир он ийи он үш он дөрт он беш он алды он чеди он сес он тос чээрби
on bir on iji on üsh on dört on besh on aldy on chedi on ses on tos cheerbi

Grammar - Дүрүмнери

Locative Case - Турарының Падежи

The locative case corresponds to

<TBODY> </TBODY>
    Word Ending Result Translation

For nouns that end in an unvoiced consonant (т п с ш к ч)

Front vowels bizhik -te бижикте on the paper
Back vowels a't -ta аътта on the horse
For everything else Front vowels khem -de хемде on the river
Back vowels sadyg -da садыгда at the store

The locative case is also used with pronouns. It can be used to indicate possesion.

<TBODY> </TBODY>
менде mende at me
сенде sende at you
ында ynda at him/her/it
бисте biste at us
силерде silerde at you
оларда olarda at them

 

Continuous/Habitual Present Tense

This basic present tense uses the auxilliary verb tur- (to stand) in combination with a converb. A converb is a verb that needs another verb to help it convey meaning. For first and second person (men, bis, sen, and siler), tur- needs to be followed by the person/number indicator. For third person (ol and olar), the person/number indicator is not needed.

Bilir (to know, understand)   Subject Converb Verb Person/Number Indicator
Singular 1st Person Мен билип тур мен
2nd Person Сен билип тур сен
3rd Person Ол билип тур -
Plural 1st Person Бис билип тур бис
2nd Person Силер билип тур силер
3rd Person Олар билип тур(лар) -

Note: In plural third person, the use of turlar is optional. It can be used for clarification.

Positive and Negative Present Tense Converb

The converb shows whether the sentence is positive or negative. For positive, take the verb stem and add a -p after any vowels. If the verb stem ends in a consonant, add -ip/-yp/-üp/-up according to vowel harmony rules. Typically the last two letters (ir, yr, er, ar) are dropped in order to find the verb stem, but not always! Sometimes the last consonant will become unvoiced, like tudar (to hold) becoming tut-. Familiarity will come with practice.

Verb Verb Stem /-Ip/ ending Positive Converb Translation
bizhir (to write) bizhi- +p бижип writing
bilir (to know) bil- +ip билип knowing
kylyr (to do) kyl- +yp кылып doing
üner (to go out) ün- +üp үнүп going out
tudar (to hold) tut- +up тутуп holding

For the negative form, it is a bit more complex.

<TBODY> </TBODY>
    Verb Stem /-BAyn/ ending Negative Converb Translation

For verb stems that end in a vowel
vajn/vejn.

Front vowels bizhi- (to write) -vejn биживейн not writing
Back vowels azhylda- (to work) -vajn ажылдавайн not working
For stems that end in a nasal (м
       н ң)
majn/mejn.
Front vowels ün- (to grow) -mejn үнмейн not going out
Back vowels doŋ- (to freeze) -majn доңмайн not freezing
For stems that end in a voiceless consonant
       (т п с ш к ч)
pajn/pejn.
Front vowels ish- (to drink) -pejn ишпейн not drinking
Back vowels tut- (to hold) -pajn тутпайн not holding
For stems that end in л,
       р, й, г, use 
bajn/bejn.
Front vowels bil- (to know) -bejn билбейн not knowing
Back vowels bar- (to go) -bajn барбайн not going

In later lessons, it will be noticed that there are more endings in Tyvan for verbs that follow a similar pattern as the chart above.

Tur and Turar

Turar is used instead of tur for action that is continuous. It would be for an action that started in the past and is still going on or for an action that is constantly performed.

Мен Сан Франсискода чурттап турар мен. I live in San Francisco and am still living there.
Мен шай ижип тур мен. I drink tea./I am drinking tea.
Мен шай ижип турар мен. I regularly drink tea.

 

Review