Difference between revisions of "Lesson 4"

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{{Lessons}}
 
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'''Tyvan Lesson 4: More Questions - Тыва Дыл Дөрткү Kичээл'''
=Tyvan Lesson 4: More Questions - Тыва Дыл Дөрткү Kичээл=
+
{{Copyright|[[User:Sborsody|Stacey Borsody]]}}
 
 
 
==Dialog - Чугаалажыр==
 
==Dialog - Чугаалажыр==
 
{| CELLSPACING=0 CELLPADDING=5 BORDER=0
 
{| CELLSPACING=0 CELLPADDING=5 BORDER=0
Line 26: Line 25:
  
 
==Vocabulary - Сөстер==
 
==Vocabulary - Сөстер==
 +
====Colors====
 +
 +
{| BORDERCOLOR=#000000 CELLSPACING=0 CELLPADDING=5 BORDER=1
 +
|-
 +
|BGCOLOR=brown| 
 +
|BGCOLOR=lightblue| 
 +
|BGCOLOR=turquoise| 
 +
|BGCOLOR=pink| 
 +
|-
 +
|хүрең
 +
|ак-көк
 +
|ягаан-көк
 +
|ягаан
 +
|-
 +
|khüreŋ
 +
|ak-kök
 +
|jagaan-kök
 +
|jagaan
 +
|}
 
===Numbers 11-20===
 
===Numbers 11-20===
 
{| BORDERCOLOR=#000000 CELLSPACING=0 CELLPADDING=5 BORDER=1
 
{| BORDERCOLOR=#000000 CELLSPACING=0 CELLPADDING=5 BORDER=1
Line 104: Line 122:
 
|}
 
|}
  
<P>The locative case is also used with pronouns. It can be used to indicate possesion.</P>
 
<TABLE BORDER=1 CELLPADDING=0 CELLSPACING=0 BORDERCOLOR="#000000">
 
  <TBODY>
 
    <TR>
 
  
      <TD VALIGN=top WIDTH=183>менде </TD>
+
The locative case is also used with pronouns. It can be used to indicate possesion. (example needed)
      <TD VALIGN=top WIDTH=200>mende</TD>
 
      <TD VALIGN=top WIDTH=207>at me </TD>
 
    </TR>
 
    <TR>
 
      <TD VALIGN=top WIDTH=183>сенде </TD>
 
      <TD VALIGN=top WIDTH=200>sende </TD>
 
  
      <TD VALIGN=top WIDTH=207>at you </TD>
+
{| BORDER=1 CELLPADDING=5 CELLSPACING=0 BORDERCOLOR=#000000
    </TR>
+
|-
    <TR>
+
|men
      <TD VALIGN=top WIDTH=183>ында </TD>
+
|менде
      <TD VALIGN=top WIDTH=200>ynda </TD>
+
|mende
      <TD VALIGN=top WIDTH=207>at him/her/it </TD>
+
|at me
    </TR>
+
|-
 
+
|sen
    <TR>
+
|сенде
      <TD VALIGN=top WIDTH=183>бисте </TD>
+
|sende
      <TD VALIGN=top WIDTH=200>biste </TD>
+
|at you
      <TD VALIGN=top WIDTH=207>at us </TD>
+
|-
    </TR>
+
|ol
    <TR>
+
|ында
      <TD VALIGN=top WIDTH=183>силерде </TD>
+
|ynda
 
+
|at him/her/it
      <TD VALIGN=top WIDTH=200>silerde </TD>
+
|-
      <TD VALIGN=top WIDTH=207>at you</TD>
+
|bis
    </TR>
+
|бисте
    <TR>
+
|biste
      <TD VALIGN=top WIDTH=183>оларда </TD>
+
|at us
      <TD VALIGN=top WIDTH=200>olarda </TD>
+
|-
      <TD VALIGN=top WIDTH=207>at them </TD>
+
|siler
 
+
|силерде
    </TR>
+
|silerde
  </TBODY>
+
|at you
</TABLE>
+
|-
<P>&nbsp;</P>
+
|olar
 +
|оларда
 +
|olarda
 +
|at them
 +
|}
  
 
===Continuous/Habitual Present Tense===
 
===Continuous/Habitual Present Tense===
<P>This basic present
+
This basic present tense uses the auxilliary verb tur- (to stand) in combination with a converb. A converb is a verb that needs another verb to help it convey meaning. For first and second person men, bis, sen, and siler), tur- needs to be followed by the person/number indicator. For third person (ol and olar), the person/number indicator is not needed.
  tense uses the auxilliary verb tur- (to stand) in combination with a converb.
 
  A converb is a verb that needs another verb to help it convey meaning. For
 
  first and second person (men, bis, sen, and siler), tur- needs to be followed
 
  by the person/number indicator. For third person (ol and olar), the person/number
 
  indicator is not needed.</P>
 
<TABLE BORDER="1" CELLPADDING="5" CELLSPACING="0" BORDERCOLOR="#000000">
 
  <TR>
 
    <TD><B>Bilir (to know, understand)</B></TD>
 
  
    <TD>&nbsp;</TD>
+
{| BORDER="1" CELLPADDING="5" CELLSPACING="0" BORDERCOLOR="#000000"
    <TD><B>Subject</B></TD>
+
|-
    <TD><B>Converb</B></TD>
+
!Билир (bilir; to know, understand)
    <TD><B>Verb</B></TD>
+
!&nbsp;
    <TD><B>Person/Number Indicator</B></TD>
+
!Subject
  </TR>
+
!Converb
  <TR>
+
!Verb
 +
!Person/Number Indicator
 +
|-
 +
|ROWSPAN="3"|'''Singular'''
 +
|'''1st Person'''
 +
|Мен
 +
|билип
 +
|тур
 +
|мен
 +
|-
 +
|'''2nd Person'''
 +
|Сен
 +
|билип
 +
|тур
 +
|сен
 +
|-
 +
|'''3rd Person'''
 +
|Ол
 +
|билип
 +
|тур
 +
| -
 +
|-
 +
|ROWSPAN="3"|'''Plural'''
 +
|'''1st Person'''
 +
|Бис
 +
|билип
 +
|тур
 +
|бис
 +
|-
 +
|'''2nd Person'''
 +
|Силер
 +
|билип
 +
|тур
 +
|силер
 +
|-
 +
|'''3rd Person'''
 +
|Олар
 +
|билип
 +
|тур(лар)
 +
| -
 +
|}
  
    <TD ROWSPAN="3"><B>Singular</B></TD>
+
'''Note:''' In plural third person, the use of turlar is optional. It can be used for clarification.
    <TD><B>1st Person</B></TD>
 
    <TD>Мен</TD>
 
    <TD>билип</TD>
 
    <TD>тур</TD>
 
    <TD>мен</TD>
 
  
  </TR>
+
===The converb===
  <TR>
+
The converb is a verb that needs another auxilliary verb to help it form meaning.  Speakers familiar with English will recognize the use of verbs like "shall, will, can" as auxilliary verbs followed by another verb (a converb).  The idea in Tyvan is basically the same.  The difference is that a converb requires the verb to be converted with "converb" suffixes.
    <TD><B>2nd Person</B></TD>
 
    <TD>Сен</TD>
 
    <TD>билип</TD>
 
    <TD>тур</TD>
 
    <TD>сен</TD>
 
  
  </TR>
+
Below are the suffixes used in the present tense converb.  There are two suffixes, depending upon if the sentence is positive or negative.
  <TR>
 
    <TD><B>3rd Person</B></TD>
 
    <TD>Ол</TD>
 
    <TD>билип</TD>
 
    <TD>тур</TD>
 
    <TD>-</TD>
 
  
  </TR>
+
====Positive present tense converb suffix====
  <TR>
+
For positive, take the verb stem and add a -p after any vowels. If the verb stem ends in a consonant, add -ip/-yp/-üp/-up according to vowel harmony rules. Typically the last two letters (ir, yr, er, ar) are dropped in order to find the verb stem, but not always!  Note the consonant assimilation in the verb tut- (to hold).
    <TD ROWSPAN="3"><B>Plural</B></TD>
 
    <TD><B>1st Person</B></TD>
 
    <TD>Бис</TD>
 
    <TD>билип</TD>
 
    <TD>тур</TD>
 
  
    <TD>бис</TD>
+
{| BORDER="1" CELLPADDING="5" CELLSPACING="0" BORDERCOLOR="#000000"
  </TR>
+
|-
  <TR>
+
!Verb
    <TD><B>2nd Person</B></TD>
+
!Verb Stem
    <TD>Силер</TD>
+
!/-Ip/ ending
    <TD>билип</TD>
+
!Positive Converb
    <TD>тур</TD>
+
!Translation
 +
|-
 +
|bizhir (to write)
 +
|bizhi-
 +
| +p
 +
|бижип
 +
|writing
 +
|-
 +
|bilir (to know)
 +
|bil-
 +
| +ip
 +
|билип
 +
|knowing
 +
|-
 +
|kylyr (to do)
 +
|kyl-
 +
| +yp
 +
|кылып
 +
|doing
 +
|-
 +
|üner (to go out)
 +
|ün-
 +
| +üp
 +
|үнүп
 +
|going out
 +
|-
 +
|tudar (to hold)
 +
|tut-
 +
| +up
 +
|тудуп
 +
|holding
 +
|}
  
    <TD>силер</TD>
+
====Negative present tense converb suffix====
  </TR>
 
  <TR>
 
    <TD><B>3rd Person</B></TD>
 
    <TD>Олар</TD>
 
    <TD>билип</TD>
 
    <TD>тур(лар)</TD>
 
  
    <TD>-</TD>
+
For the negative form, it is a bit more complex.
  </TR>
 
</TABLE>
 
<P><B>Note:</B> In plural third person, the use of turlar is optional. It can be used for
 
  clarification.</P>
 
===Positive and Negative Present Tense Converb===
 
<P>The converb shows whether the sentence is positive or negative. For positive,
 
  take the verb stem and add a -p after any vowels. If the verb stem ends in
 
  a consonant, add -ip/-yp/-üp/-up according to vowel harmony rules. Typically
 
  the last two letters (ir, yr, er, ar) are dropped in order to find the verb
 
  stem, but not always! Sometimes the
 
  last consonant will become unvoiced, like tudar (to hold) becoming tut-.
 
  Familiarity
 
  will
 
  come with practice.</P>
 
<TABLE BORDER="1" CELLPADDING="5" CELLSPACING="0" BORDERCOLOR="#000000">
 
  <TR>
 
  
    <TD><B>Verb</B></TD>
+
{| BORDERCOLOR=#000000 CELLSPACING=0 CELLPADDING=5 BORDER=1
    <TD><B>Verb Stem</B></TD>
+
|-
    <TD><B>/-Ip/ ending</B></TD>
+
!&nbsp;
    <TD><B>Positive Converb</B></TD>
+
!&nbsp;
    <TD><B>Translation</B></TD>
+
!Verb Stem
  </TR>
+
!/-BAyn/ ending
 
+
!Negative Converb
  <TR>
+
!Translation
    <TD>bizhir (to write)</TD>
+
|-
    <TD>bizhi-</TD>
+
|ROWSPAN=2|For verb stems that end in a vowel<BR>vajn/vejn.
    <TD>+p</TD>
+
|Front vowels
    <TD>бижип</TD>
+
|bizhi- (to write)
    <TD>writing</TD>
+
| -vejn
 
+
|биживейн
  </TR>
+
|not writing
  <TR>
+
|-
    <TD>bilir (to know)</TD>
+
|Back vowels
    <TD>bil-</TD>
+
|azhylda- (to work)
    <TD>+ip</TD>
+
| -vajn
    <TD>билип</TD>
+
|ажылдавайн
    <TD>knowing</TD>
+
|not working
 
+
|-
  </TR>
+
|ROWSPAN=2|For stems that end in a nasal (м н ң)<BR>majn/mejn.
  <TR>
+
|Front vowels
    <TD>kylyr (to do)</TD>
+
|ün- (to grow)
    <TD>kyl-</TD>
+
| -mejn
    <TD>+yp</TD>
+
|үнмейн
    <TD>кылып</TD>
+
|not going out
    <TD>doing</TD>
+
|-
 
+
|Back vowels
  </TR>
+
|doŋ- (to freeze)
  <TR>
+
| -majn
    <TD>üner (to go out)</TD>
+
|доңмайн
    <TD>ün-</TD>
+
|not freezing
    <TD>+üp</TD>
+
|-
    <TD>үнүп</TD>
+
|ROWSPAN=2|For stems that end in a voiceless consonant (т п с ш к ч)<BR>pajn/pejn.
    <TD>going out</TD>
+
|Front vowels
 
+
|&nbsp;
  </TR>
+
| -pejn
  <TR>
+
|&nbsp;
    <TD>tudar (to hold)</TD>
+
|&nbsp;
    <TD>tut-</TD>
+
|-
    <TD>+up</TD>
+
|Back vowels
    <TD>тутуп</TD>
+
|tut- (to hold)
    <TD>holding</TD>
+
| -pajn
 
+
|тутпайн
  </TR>
+
|not holding
</TABLE>
+
|-
<P>For the negative form, it is a bit more complex.</P>
+
|ROWSPAN=2|For stems that end in л, р, й, г, use <BR>bajn/bejn.
<TABLE BORDERCOLOR=#000000 CELLSPACING=0 CELLPADDING=5 BORDER=1>
+
|Front vowels
  <TR>
+
|bil- (to know)
    <TD>&nbsp;</TD>
+
| -bejn
    <TD>&nbsp;</TD>
+
|билбейн
    <TD><B>Verb Stem</B></TD>
+
|not knowing
    <TD><B>/-BAyn/ ending</B></TD>
+
|-
 
+
|Back vowels
    <TD><B>Negative Converb</B></TD>
+
|bar- (to go)
    <TD><B>Translation</B></TD>
+
| -bajn
  </TR>
+
|барбайн
  <TBODY>
+
|not going
    <TR>
+
|}
      <TD ROWSPAN=2><P>For verb stems that end in a vowel<BR>
 
          vajn/vejn.</P>
 
  
      </TD>
+
In later lessons, it will be noticed that there are more endings in Tyvan for verbs that follow a similar pattern as the chart above.
      <TD>Front vowels</TD>
 
      <TD>bizhi- (to write)</TD>
 
      <TD>-vejn</TD>
 
      <TD>биживейн</TD>
 
      <TD>not writing</TD>
 
  
    </TR>
 
    <TR>
 
      <TD>Back vowels</TD>
 
      <TD>azhylda- (to work)</TD>
 
      <TD>-vajn</TD>
 
      <TD>ажылдавайн</TD>
 
      <TD>not working</TD>
 
 
    </TR>
 
    <TR>
 
      <TD ROWSPAN=2>For stems that end in a nasal (м
 
        н ң)<BR>
 
        majn/mejn.</TD>
 
      <TD>Front vowels</TD>
 
      <TD>ün- (to grow)</TD>
 
      <TD>-mejn</TD>
 
 
      <TD>үнмейн</TD>
 
      <TD>not going out</TD>
 
    </TR>
 
    <TR>
 
      <TD>Back vowels</TD>
 
      <TD>doŋ- (to freeze)</TD>
 
      <TD>-majn</TD>
 
 
      <TD>доңмайн</TD>
 
      <TD>not freezing</TD>
 
    </TR>
 
    <TR>
 
      <TD ROWSPAN=2>For stems that end in a voiceless consonant
 
        (т п с ш к ч)<BR>
 
        pajn/pejn.</TD>
 
      <TD>Front vowels</TD>
 
 
      <TD>ish- (to drink)</TD>
 
      <TD>-pejn</TD>
 
      <TD>ишпейн</TD>
 
      <TD>not drinking</TD>
 
    </TR>
 
    <TR>
 
      <TD>Back vowels</TD>
 
 
      <TD>tut- (to hold)</TD>
 
      <TD>-pajn</TD>
 
      <TD>тутпайн</TD>
 
      <TD>not holding</TD>
 
    </TR>
 
    <TR>
 
      <TD ROWSPAN=2>For stems that end in  л,
 
        р, й, г, use <BR>
 
 
        bajn/bejn.</TD>
 
      <TD>Front vowels</TD>
 
      <TD>bil- (to know)</TD>
 
      <TD>-bejn</TD>
 
      <TD>билбейн</TD>
 
      <TD>not knowing</TD>
 
 
    </TR>
 
    <TR>
 
      <TD>Back vowels</TD>
 
      <TD>bar- (to go)</TD>
 
      <TD>-bajn</TD>
 
      <TD>барбайн</TD>
 
      <TD>not going</TD>
 
 
    </TR>
 
  </TBODY>
 
</TABLE>
 
<P>In later lessons, it will be noticed that there are more endings in Tyvan for
 
  verbs that follow a similar pattern as the chart above.</P>
 
 
===Tur and Turar===
 
===Tur and Turar===
<P>Turar is used instead of tur for action that is continuous. It would be
+
Turar is used instead of tur for action that is continuous. It would be for an action that started in the past and is still going on or for an action that is constantly performed.
  for an action that started in the past and is still going on or for an action
 
  that is constantly performed.</P>
 
<TABLE BORDER="1" CELLPADDING="5" CELLSPACING="0" BORDERCOLOR="#000000">
 
  <TR>
 
    <TD>Мен Сан Франсискода чурттап турар мен.</TD>
 
  
    <TD>I live in San Francisco and am still living there.</TD>
+
{| BORDER="1" CELLPADDING="5" CELLSPACING="0" BORDERCOLOR="#000000"
  </TR>
+
|-
  <TR>
+
|Мен Сан Франсискода чурттап турар мен.
    <TD>Мен шай ижип тур мен.</TD>
+
|I live in San Francisco and am still living there.
    <TD>I drink tea./I am drinking tea.</TD>
+
|-
  </TR>
+
|Мен шай ижип тур мен.
  <TR>
+
|I drink tea./I am drinking tea.
 +
|-
 +
|Мен шай ижип турар мен.
 +
|I regularly drink tea.
 +
|}
  
    <TD>Мен шай ижип турар мен.</TD>
+
==Review==
    <TD>I regularly drink tea.</TD>
 
  </TR>
 
</TABLE>
 
<P>&nbsp;</P>
 
===Review===
 
<P>&nbsp;</P>
 

Latest revision as of 17:22, 14 December 2006

Тыва Дыл Kичээллер
Lesson 0 Lesson 1 Lesson 2 Lesson 3 Lesson 4

Tyvan Lesson 4: More Questions - Тыва Дыл Дөрткү Kичээл

Copyright.png
by Stacey Borsody
All rights reserved

Dialog - Чугаалажыр

Кайда чурттап турар силер? Kajda churttap turar siler?
Мен Сан Франсискода чурттап турар мен. Men San Franciscoda churttap turar men.
Кайда ажылдап турарлар? Kajda azhyldap turarlar?
Олар Кызылда ажылдап турарлар. Olar Kyzylda azhyldap turarlar.
Чүү кылып тур бис? Chüü kylyp tur bis?
Бис тыва дыл өөренип тур бис. Bis tyva dyl öörenip tur bis.

Vocabulary - Сөстер

Colors

       
хүрең ак-көк ягаан-көк ягаан
khüreŋ ak-kök jagaan-kök jagaan

Numbers 11-20

11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
он бир он ийи он үш он дөрт он беш он алды он чеди он сес он тос чээрби
on bir on iji on üsh on dört on besh on aldy on chedi on ses on tos cheerbi

Grammar - Дүрүмнери

Locative Case - Турарының Падежи

The locative case corresponds to

    Word Ending Result Translation
For nouns that end in an unvoiced consonant (т п с ш к ч) Front vowels bizhik -te бижикте on the paper
Back vowels a't -ta аътта at the horse
For everything else Front vowels khem -de хемде on the river
Back vowels sadyg -da садыгда at the store


The locative case is also used with pronouns. It can be used to indicate possesion. (example needed)

men менде mende at me
sen сенде sende at you
ol ында ynda at him/her/it
bis бисте biste at us
siler силерде silerde at you
olar оларда olarda at them

Continuous/Habitual Present Tense

This basic present tense uses the auxilliary verb tur- (to stand) in combination with a converb. A converb is a verb that needs another verb to help it convey meaning. For first and second person men, bis, sen, and siler), tur- needs to be followed by the person/number indicator. For third person (ol and olar), the person/number indicator is not needed.

Билир (bilir; to know, understand)   Subject Converb Verb Person/Number Indicator
Singular 1st Person Мен билип тур мен
2nd Person Сен билип тур сен
3rd Person Ол билип тур -
Plural 1st Person Бис билип тур бис
2nd Person Силер билип тур силер
3rd Person Олар билип тур(лар) -

Note: In plural third person, the use of turlar is optional. It can be used for clarification.

The converb

The converb is a verb that needs another auxilliary verb to help it form meaning. Speakers familiar with English will recognize the use of verbs like "shall, will, can" as auxilliary verbs followed by another verb (a converb). The idea in Tyvan is basically the same. The difference is that a converb requires the verb to be converted with "converb" suffixes.

Below are the suffixes used in the present tense converb. There are two suffixes, depending upon if the sentence is positive or negative.

Positive present tense converb suffix

For positive, take the verb stem and add a -p after any vowels. If the verb stem ends in a consonant, add -ip/-yp/-üp/-up according to vowel harmony rules. Typically the last two letters (ir, yr, er, ar) are dropped in order to find the verb stem, but not always! Note the consonant assimilation in the verb tut- (to hold).

Verb Verb Stem /-Ip/ ending Positive Converb Translation
bizhir (to write) bizhi- +p бижип writing
bilir (to know) bil- +ip билип knowing
kylyr (to do) kyl- +yp кылып doing
üner (to go out) ün- +üp үнүп going out
tudar (to hold) tut- +up тудуп holding

Negative present tense converb suffix

For the negative form, it is a bit more complex.

    Verb Stem /-BAyn/ ending Negative Converb Translation
For verb stems that end in a vowel
vajn/vejn.
Front vowels bizhi- (to write) -vejn биживейн not writing
Back vowels azhylda- (to work) -vajn ажылдавайн not working
For stems that end in a nasal (м н ң)
majn/mejn.
Front vowels ün- (to grow) -mejn үнмейн not going out
Back vowels doŋ- (to freeze) -majn доңмайн not freezing
For stems that end in a voiceless consonant (т п с ш к ч)
pajn/pejn.
Front vowels   -pejn    
Back vowels tut- (to hold) -pajn тутпайн not holding
For stems that end in л, р, й, г, use
bajn/bejn.
Front vowels bil- (to know) -bejn билбейн not knowing
Back vowels bar- (to go) -bajn барбайн not going

In later lessons, it will be noticed that there are more endings in Tyvan for verbs that follow a similar pattern as the chart above.

Tur and Turar

Turar is used instead of tur for action that is continuous. It would be for an action that started in the past and is still going on or for an action that is constantly performed.

Мен Сан Франсискода чурттап турар мен. I live in San Francisco and am still living there.
Мен шай ижип тур мен. I drink tea./I am drinking tea.
Мен шай ижип турар мен. I regularly drink tea.

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