Suffix cheatsheet

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Meant to be a cheatsheet...

Case

Name Archiphoneme Environment Vowel Harmony No Vowel Harmony Reference
Front Back
No Round Harmony Round Harmony No Round Harmony Round Harmony
Unround Round Unround Round
Genitive /-NIŋ/ After voiceless consonants t, p, s, š, k, č   -tiŋ -tüŋ   -tyŋ -tuŋ   A&H 2.1.1.4
After l   -diŋ -düŋ   -dyŋ -duŋ   A&H 2.1.1.4
After everything else   -niŋ -nüŋ   -nyŋ -nuŋ   A&H 2.1.1.4
Dative /-KA/ After voiceless consonants t, p, s, š, k, č -ke     -ka       A&H 2.1.1.4
After voiced consonants -ge     -ga       A&H 2.1.1.4
Accusative /-NI/ After voiceless consonants t, p, s, š, k, č   -ni -nü   -ny -nu   A&H 2.1.1.4
After l   -di -dü   -dy -du   A&H 2.1.1.4
After everything else   -ti -tü   -ty -tu   A&H 2.1.1.4
Locative /-DA/ After voiceless consonants t, p, s, š, k, č -te     -ta       A&H 2.1.1.4
After everything else -de     -da       A&H 2.1.1.4
Ablative /-DAn/ After voiceless consonants t, p, s, š, k, č -ten     -tan       A&H 2.1.1.4
After everything else -den     -dan       A&H 2.1.1.4
Directive I /-Je/ After voiced phonemes             -zhe A&H 2.1.1.4
After unvoiced phonemes             -che A&H 2.1.1.4
Directive II /-DIvA/ After voiceless consonants t, p, s, <š</, k, č   -tive -tüve   -tyva -tuva   A&H 2.1.1.4
After everything else   -dive -düve   -dyva -duva   A&H 2.1.1.4

Nouns

  Archiphoneme   Vowel Harmony No Vowel Harmony Examples  
Front Back
No Round Harmony Round Harmony No Round Harmony Round Harmony
  Unround Round   Unround Round
Nouns
Noun Plurals /-LAr/ After a vowel or r, g, j -ler     -lar         A&H 2.1.1.1
After nasals n, m, ŋ -ner     -nar         A&H 2.1.1.1
After l -der     -dar         A&H 2.1.1.1
After voiceless consonants t, p, s, š, k, č -ter     -tar         A&H 2.1.1.1
First Person Singular Possesive /-(I)m/ After consonants   -im -üm   -ym -um     A&H 2.1.1.5
After vowels             -m   A&H 2.1.1.5
Second Person Singular Possesive /-(I)ŋ/ After consonants   -iŋ -üŋ   -yŋ -uŋ     A&H 2.1.1.5
After vowels               A&H 2.1.1.5
Third Person Singular Possesive /-(z)I/ After consonants   -i   -y -u     A&H 2.1.1.5
After vowels   -zi -zü   -zy -zu     A&H 2.1.1.5
First Person Plural Possesive /-IvIs/     -ivis -üvüs   -yvys -uvus     A&H 2.1.1.5
Second Person Plural Possesive /-IŋAr/   -ŋer     -ŋar         Krueger
    -eŋer -üŋer   -yŋar -uŋar     A&H 2.1.1.5
Third Person Plural Possesive /-(z)I/     -i   -y -u     A&H 2.1.1.5
    -zi -zü   -zy -zu     A&H 2.1.1.5
Ordinal Numbers (infrequent) /-GI/     -ki -kü   -ky -ku     A&H 2.1.3
    -gi -gü   -gy -gu     A&H 2.1.3
Collective Numbers /-AlAA(n)/ .......... -eleen     -alaan         A&H 2.1.3
........... -elee     -alaa         Krueger
Archaic Collective Number /-ALdIrzI/ ....... A&H typo on /L/?   -eldirzi -eldürzü   -aldyrzy -aldurzu     A&H 2.1.3

Adjectives

  Archiphoneme   Vowel Harmony No Vowel Harmony Examples  
Front Back
No Round Harmony Round Harmony No Round Harmony Round Harmony
  Unround Round   Unround Round
Adjectives
Denoting Posession of the Noun or its Qualities /-LIg/ After a vowel or r, g, j   -lig -lüg   -lyg -lug     A&H 2.1.4
After nasals n, m, ŋ   -nig -nüg   -nyg -nug     A&H 2.1.4
After l   -dig -düg   -dyg -dug     A&H 2.1.4
After voiceless consonants t, p, s, š, k, č   -tig -tüg   -tyg -tug     A&H 2.1.4
  /-KI/ ..........   -ki -kü   -ky -ku     A&H 2.1.4
............   -gi -gü   -gy -gu     A&H 2.1.4
Augmentative /-zImAAr/     -zimeer -zümeer   -zymaar -zumaar     A&H 2.1.4
Augmentative /-Il(dIr)/                   A&H 2.1.4
Intensity Augmentative /-(Iŋ)kIr/ ...........   -kir -kür   -kyr -kur     A&H 2.1.4
.............   -iŋkir -üŋkür   -yŋkyr -uŋkur     A&H 2.1.4

Nominal Categorizers

  Archiphoneme   Vowel Harmony No Vowel Harmony Examples  
Front Back
No Round Harmony Round Harmony No Round Harmony Round Harmony
  Unround Round   Unround Round
Nominal Categorizers (deverbal noun)
  /-Ig/     -ig -üg   -yg -ug      
  /-čI/   -che     -cha          
  /-KčI/ ............   -kchi -kchü   -kchy -kchu      
..........   -gchi -gchü   -gchy -gchu      
  /-IIškIn/ Krueger   -ishkin -üshkün   -yshkyn -ushkun     Krueger
.............   -iishkin üshkün   -yyshkyn -uushkun     A&H
  /-KI(I)š/ ..............   -kish, -kiish -küsh, -küüsh   -kysh, -kyysh -kush, -kuush      
..............   -gish, -giish -güsh, -güüsh   -gysh-gysh -gush-gush      
  -m     -im -üm   -ym -um -m   Krueger /-Im/
  /-čIn/     -chin -chün   -chyn -chun      
  /-lgA/   -lge     -lga          
  /-mAl/ ........ -mel     -mal          
Kruger /-ImAl/   -imel -ümel   -ymal -umal     Krueger /-ImAl/
  /-ldA/ Krueger /-IldA/   -ilde -ülde   -ylda -ulda     Krueger /-IldA/
........ -lde     -lda          
  -l                    
  /-čIgAš/     -chigesh -chügesh   -chygash -chugash      
  /-čAk/   -chek     -chak          
  /-čIk/     -chik -chük   -chyk -chuk      
  /-Ak/   -ek     -ak          
  /-BAy/ ........... -bej     -baj          
........ -mej     -maj          
........ -pej     -paj          
......... -vej     -vaj          

Verbs

  Archiphoneme   Vowel Harmony No Vowel Harmony Examples  
Front Back
No Round Harmony Round Harmony No Round Harmony Round Harmony
  Unround Round   Unround Round
Verbs
First Person Singular /-(I)m/     -im -üm   -ym -um -m    
Second Person Singular /-(I)ŋ/     -iŋ -üŋ   -yŋ -uŋ    
First Person Plural /-(I)vIs/ .......   -ivis -üvüs   -yvys -uvus      
..........   -vis -vüs   -vys -vus      
Second Person Plural /-(I)ŋAr/ ....... -ŋer     -ŋar          
.........   -iŋer -üŋer   -yŋar -uŋar      
Third Person Plural /(-LAr)/ After a vowel or r, g, j -ler     -lar          
After nasals n, m, ŋ -ner     -nar          
After l -der     -dar          
After voiceless consonants t, p, s, š, k, č -ter     -tar          
Definite Past /-GAn/ ............ -ken     -kan          
After voiced consonants -gen     -gan          
Indefinite Past /-DI/ After voiceless consonants t, p, s, š, k, č   -ti -tü   -ty -tu      
After everything else   -di -dü   -dy -du      
Present-Future /-Vr/ After vowels             -r    
  /-Ir/     -ir -ür   -yr -ur      
  /-Ar/   -er     -ar          
Converb /-(I)p/     -ip -üp   -yp -up -p    
Iterative Aspect /-KIlA/ After voiceless consonants t, p, s, š, k, č   -kile -küle   -kyla -kula      
After voiced consonant stems   -gile -güle   -gyla -gula      
Perfective Aspect /-IvIt/     -ivit -üvüt   -yvyt -uvut      
Resultative (past rhetorical) Aspect /-ČIk/ After nasals, l, and unvoiced consonants   -chik -chük   -chyk -chuk      
After sonants r, g, j   -zhik -zhük   -zhyk -zhuk      
Unaccomplished Aspect /-GAlAk/ After voiced consonant stems -gelek     -galak         A&H
After voiceless consonants t, p, s, š, k, č -kelek     -kalak         A&H
After vowels? -eelek     -aalak         Krueger
Cessative Aspect /-BAstA-/ ........... -beste     -basta          
......... -meste     -masta          
........ -peste     -pasta          
........... -veste     -vasta          
  Archiphoneme   Vowel Harmony No Vowel Harmony Examples  
Front Back
No Round Harmony Round Harmony No Round Harmony Round Harmony
  Unround Round   Unround Round
Conditional Mood /-ZA/ .......... -se     -sa          
......... -ze     -za          
Concessive Mood -daa                    
Conciliatory (Voluntative) Mood /-GAy/ After voiceless consonants t, p, s, š, k, č -kej     -kaj          
After voiced consonants -gej     -gaj          
Desiderative Mood /-ksA/   -kse     -ksa          
Evidential Mood /-DIr/ After voiceless consonants t, p, s, š, k, č   -tir -tür   -tyr -tur      
After everything else   -dir -dür   -dyr -dur      
Negation /-BA/   -pe     -pa          
  -be     -ba          
  -ve     -va          
  -me     -ma          
Present-Future Negation /-BAs/   -bes     -bas          
  -mes     -mas          
  -pes     -pas          
  -ves     -vas          
Negative Converb /-BAyn/   -pejn     -pajn          
  -mejn     -majn          
  -bejn     -bajn          
  -vejn     -vajn          

Verbal Categorizers

  Archiphoneme   Vowel Harmony No Vowel Harmony Examples  
Front Back
No Round Harmony Round Harmony No Round Harmony Round Harmony
  Unround Round   Unround Round
Verbal Categorizers (denominal verb)
  /-LA/ After a vowel or r, g, j -le     -la          
After nasals n, m, ŋ -ne     -na          
After l -de     -da          
After voiceless consonants t, p, s, š, k, č -te     -ta          
  /-A/   -e     -a          
  /-IrgA/     -irge -ürge   -yrga -urga      
  /-ZIrA/     -sire -süre   -syra -sura      
    -zire -züre   -zyra -zura      
  /-Ar/   -er     -ar          
  /-rA/   -re     -ra          
  /-Gar/               -kar    
              -gar    
  /-sI/     -si -sü   -sy su      
  /-šI/     -shi -shü   -shy -shu      
  /-čI/     -chi -chü   -chy -chu      
  /-ksA/   -kse     -ksa          
  -t                    
  /-DIrt/ After voiceless consonants t, p, s, š, k, č   -tirt -türt   -tyrt -turt      
After everything else   -dirt -dürt   -dyrt -durt      
  /-GIs/     -kis -küs   -kys -kus      
        -gis -güs   -gys -gus      
Reciprocal Action /-Iš/     -ish -üsh   -ysh -ush      

Verbal Modifiers

  Archiphoneme   Vowel Harmony No Vowel Harmony Examples  
Front Back
No Round Harmony Round Harmony No Round Harmony Round Harmony
  Unround Round   Unround Round
Verbal Modifiers
Converb /-(I)p/     -ip -üp   -yp -up      
  /-A/   -e     -a          
  /-y/                    
Past Converb /-GAš/   -kesh     -kash          
  -gesh     -gash          
"Since" Converb /-GAlA/ After voiceless consonants t, p, s, š, k, č -kele     -kala          
After voiced consonants -gele     -gala          
Durative Converb /-BIšaan/     -pishaan -püshaan   -pyshaan -pushaan      
    -bishaan -büshaan   -byshaan -bushaan      
    -vishaan -vüshaan   -vyshaan -vushaan      
    -mishaan -müshaan   -myshaan -mushaan      

Clitics, Particles, etc.

  Archiphoneme   Vowel Harmony No Vowel Harmony Examples  
Front Back
No Round Harmony Round Harmony No Round Harmony Round Harmony
  Unround Round   Unround Round
Clitics, Particles, etc.
Emphatic Marker /+LA/ After a vowel or r, g, j -le     -la          
After nasals n, m, ŋ -ne     -na          
After l -de     -da          
After voiceless consonants t, p, s, š, k, č -te     -ta          
Equative Marker /-LA/ After a vowel or r, g, j -le     -la          
After nasals n, m, ŋ -ne     -na          
After l -de     -da          
After voiceless consonants t, p, s, š, k, č -te     -ta          
Emphatic Focus Marker =daa                    
Instrumentive Marker =bile                    
Interrogative & Deictic Particle /-Il/     -il -ül   -yl -ul      
Assertive or Evidential or Copula /-DIr/ After voiceless consonants t, p, s, š, k, č   -tir -tür   -tyr -tur      
After everything else   -dir -dür   -dyr -dur      
Interrogative Particle be                    

Archiphonemes

/A/ -> e, a

/I/ -> i, ü, y, u

/N/ -> n, t, d


/D/ -> t, d

/L/ -> l, n, d, t

/J/ -> ž, č

/K/ -> k, g, ğ

/G/ -> k, g


/B/ -> b, p, v, m

/V/ -> any vowel

/Č/ -> ch, zh

/Z/ -> s, z