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Etymological Legend
Ch Chinese
CT Common Turkic
Kh Khalkha Mongolian
Khak Khakas
LM Literary Mongolian
LT Literary Tibetan
NE Northeastern Turkic
Rus Russian
Skt Sanskrit
  • xa-duŋma brothers, brotherly.
  • xaa servant.
  • xaaglïg closed.
  • xaak willow; birch; twig, rod. [<CT *kabak]
  • xaak ski.
  • xaalčak closed.
  • xaalga door, gate. [LM qaγalγa(n)]
  • xaalgačï door-keeper. [LM qaγalγači(n)]
  • xaan khan. [LM qaγan]
  • xaar- to fry. [<CT *kagur-]
  • xaaržak box, chest. [LM qaγurčaγ]
  • xaaš nasal, having a twang; xaaš kiži person having a twang.
  • xaay beak, muzzle, nose; bridge of the nose; (youth speech) bread. [cf. Tofa]
  • xaaya seldom, rarely.
  • xaažï seam, border.
  • xaažïla- to seam, to border.
  • xačï scissors, shears. [LM qayiči(n)]
  • xadï pine (Pinus, Coniferae). [cf. Tofa]
  • xadï- of the wind to blow.
  • xadïïr-sarïg dandelion.
  • xadïmarla- to blow (of a breeze).
  • xadïmnat- to let blow (in a breeze).
  • xadïŋ birch. [<CT *kadïŋ]
  • xag tinder. [<CT *kab]
  • xag- (xaar) to lock, to close. [cf. LM qaγa-]
  • xak- (kagar) to hit, to beat, to slap. [<CT *kak-]
  • xala weight, heaviness, gravity, difficulty, trouble, exhaustiveness; nuisance, tiresomeness; aarïïgnïŋ xalazï gravity of an illness; xala čok without difficulty, trouble, easily. [LM qala]
  • xala- to exchange, to take over from (turn); to demobolize; to dismiss. [LM qala-]
  • xalak look at that!
  • xalalïg tiresome, tiring, wearisome.
  • xalap calamity, disaster; sug xalap flood, deluge.
  • xalaptïg sharp, lively; damned, cursed.
  • xalas free (of charge), gratuitous, for nothing, gratis.
  • xalbaŋ ear-flaps of a hat; earlobe.
  • xalda- to fall down upon, to attack; to influence. [LM qalda-]
  • xaldaaškïn attack, advance, approach.
  • xalï- to jump up, to leap. [<CT *kalï-]
  • xalïïdat- to cause to become hot (fever).
  • xalïïn high temperature, fever. [LM qalaγun]
  • xalïïn-dogaa samovar.
  • xalïïškïn leap, uprising.
  • xalïmak idle, empty, shallow; capricious, restive; xalïmak kiži thoughtless person, frivolous person.
  • xalïp lid (of a pot, stew-pan); cf. xalïptaaš.
  • xalïpta- to cover the pot; sakpïŋnïŋ aksïn xalïpta- to cover the opening of the pot.
  • xalïptaaš cf. xalïp lid.
  • xalïš- to run.
  • xalït- to skip, to jump, to caper, to hop, to lope; to gallop; to baste, to tack together, to sow with strong stitches; ahtka xalït- to jump on the horse.
  • xam shaman; xam ïyaš sacred tree; xam kalčaa very stupid. [<CT *kam]
  • xamaan connection, relation; bo čoruk ažïl-xerekke kandïg-daa xamaan čok this matter has no relation with business the whatsoever. [LM qamiya]
  • xamaan quite, so-so, not too bad, well.
  • xamaannïg having a family relationship, relationship between friends; having a connection, involved; mïnda meŋee xamaannïg kiži čok there is no one here to whom I relate.
  • xamaarïlga relationship, connection.
  • xamaarïš- to depend on, to deal with, to have to do with.
  • xamaarïšpas independent: xamaarïšpas čoruun independence.
  • xamaatï citizin, civil; Russian.
  • xamčïk epidemic. [LM γamsiγ]
  • xamïk all, whole; xamïk čon all the people, the whole nation; xamïk užur the whole matter, the whole point; xamïk užur ïnda the whole point lies in that; xamïktïŋ deerezi the best of all; xamïktïŋ murnunda the first of all; xamïktï murnay ~ xamïktï murnap before everything else; xamïktï soŋnay ~ xamïktï soŋnap after everything else. [LM qamuγ]
  • xamna- to shamanise. [<CT *kamna-]
  • xamnaarak lark; top (toy).
  • xan blood; xan börbek (blood) corpuscle. [<CT *ka:n]
  • xan- to be content; maga xan- to be satisfied; -(I)p maga xanma- to cannot get enough of; xïï xan- to be content, satisfied; to take malicious pleasure in; sagïš-setkili xan- enjoy. [<CT *kan-, LM qan-]
  • xana wall, lattice of a yurt; xana solun wall news-paper; xana karaa square of the lattice of a yurt; xana kögü leather fastener (of the wooden lattice work of the yurt). [LM qana]
  • xandïkara elder (a shrub). [LM γandaγari]
  • xandïkšïl tendency, inclination.
  • xandïkšïldïg interesting.
  • xandïr deep, profound.
  • xandïr- to ensure, to satisfy; to quench. [<CT *kandur-]
  • xandït- to draw, to attract. [cf. LM qandu-]
  • xanï deep; depth.
  • xanzïra- to bleed.
  • xaŋgïr phlegm of the bowels.
  • xap pouch, bag; case, cover; box, package; pouch of sweetmeats (as a present); akša xavï purse; *taakpï xavï tobacco pouch; xol xavï glove, mitten; pir xap čigir a package of sugar; kurt xavï shell; čürek xavï pericardium; uygu xavï sleepy-head; čagaa xavï envelope. [<CT *ka:p]
  • xap: xap bat- to descend from a mountain into a valley; to go downstream; to flow; xap olur- ~ xap čoru- to start for, to be off, to set out; xap čan- to return home; xap čokta- to ascend from valley up a mountain; to go upstream; xap kel- to arrive.
  • xap-balïk snail.
  • xapčïk scrotum. [<CT *ka:pčuk]
  • xapïgïr swollen (of the face).
  • xapïy- to swell, to be inflated (of the face).
  • xapïyt- to cause to swell (of the face).
  • xapta- to put in a bag, envelope, case.
  • xaptaaškïn the act of putting in a bag, case.
  • xaptan- to bring a pouch of sweetmeats (as a present).
  • xaptat- to let put in a bag, envelope, case.
  • xar snow. [<CT *ka:r]
  • xar age, year of age.
  • xar- to choke. [<CT *kar-]
  • xara- to look at, to consider. [LM qara-]
  • xaraača smokehole of a yurt, skylight.
  • xaraačïgay swallow. [LM qariyačai]
  • xaraada- to complain. [LM qarada-]
  • xaraal guard, watch; observation point; sight, gun-sight; baškï xaraal foresight, front sight; soŋgu xaraal backsight, rear sight. [LM qaraγul]
  • xaraalda- to guard, to keep watch over, to observe; to take aim, to take sight. [cf. LM qaraγalĵa-]
  • xaraazï-bile as a result of; xaraazïnda by reason of.
  • xaragan karagana, acacia, steppe-acacia; inek-xaragan karagana, yellow acacia; xola-xaragan karagana, white acacia; tennig-xaragan karagana (with thorns). [<CT *karagan]
  • xaram greedy, miserly, stingy; xaram kiži greedy person; xaram baštïg- to have a nightmare. [LM qaram]
  • xarïï answer. [LM qariγu]
  • xarïï-salga responsibility.
  • xarïïla- to answer. [LM qariγula-]
  • xarïlzaa relation, tie, connection. [LM qarilčaγa(n)]
  • xarïlzaš- to be concerned with.
  • xarïlzažïïškïn relation, connection.
  • xarïn on the other hand, but. [LM qarïn]
  • xarlïg snowy. [<CT *ka:rlïg]
  • xarlïk- to be interrupted (of breathing), to take one’s breath; to lose heart, to be cast down; *xarlïga aarak čugaala- to speak breathlessly. [cf. Khak]
  • xarmak (fish) hook. [<CT *karmak]
  • xartïga falcon, hawk.
  • xat wind; xat deerbezi windmill. [<CT *kad]
  • xatčïl ?windy.
  • xatkïlaštïr wind-like.
  • xaš thin cured leather; xaš čüvür breeches of thin cured leather (usually kid).
  • xaš: xaš soruul mouthpiece of hard stone.
  • xava small dog. [LM qaba]
  • xavak forehead; peaked cap; hillock, knoll; xavak kïrïnda on the hillock. [<CT *kabak]
  • xavan pig. [LM qaban]
  • xavaŋ swelling, tumour. [LM qabang]
  • xavar- to appear (of a corn). [<CT *ka:bar-]
  • xavarïk corn, blister.
  • xavïk cover, membrane, husk (of grain). [<CT *kabïk]
  • xavïkta- to husk (grain).
  • xavïr- to dissposses; to tax, to collect; to drive (sheep).
  • xay misery, misfortune, trouble. [LM γai]
  • xay- to make the round of, to walk around; to walk past, to go astray; taraa xay- to inspect the grain; oruktan xay- to lose one’s way. [LM xai-]
  • xay- cf. xaydïn- to find, to track down, to roam.
  • xay- to winnow; kïzïl-tas xay- to winnow wheat.
  • xay-bačït misery, misfortune, trouble.
  • xay-bačïttïg unfortunate, sinful; xay-bačïttïg kiži sinner.
  • xaya cliff, rock. [<CT *kaya]
  • xaya: xaya kör- ~ xaya körün- to look back; xaya körünmeyn maŋna- to walk without looking backwards. [<CT *kaya]
  • xayaa glow; dawn; soŋgu čüktüŋ xayaazï northern lights; daŋ xayaazï dawn; deer xayaazï horizon.
  • xayaala- to glow.
  • xayaapča long felt strip to shut off the lower part of the lattice of the yurt. [LM qayaγabči]
  • xayala- to go over a cliff, rock.
  • xayaŋ cf. kožaŋ short song, ditty.
  • xayaŋ cf. xayïm draw, drawn game.
  • xayaŋna- cf. xayïmna- to end in a draw, drawn game.
  • xayaŋnaš- to end in a drawn game together.
  • xaydak milch (animal). [LM qaidaγ]
  • xaydïn- to find, to track down; to rove, to roam about (of wolves, dogs); cf. xay-.
  • xaydïŋ moss.
  • xayïm draw, drawn game.
  • xayïm whirlpool, vortex, maelstrom; xayïm čon crowd, multitude.
  • xayïmna- to end in a draw, drawn game.
  • xayïmna- to seethe, to boil up; to swarm with, to teem with; dalay xayïmnap čïdïr the sea is seething.
  • xayïn- (xaynïr) to boil; to be enraged. [<CT *kayïn-]
  • xayïndïr- to cause to boil; to enrage; kïlïk xayïndïr- to irritate, to annoy, to make angry. [<CT *kayïndur-]
  • xaynïïškïn boiling; xaynïïškïn točkazï boiling point; amïdïraldïŋ xaynïïškïn rush of life.
  • xaynïïškïnnïg boiling, seething, ebullient, raging, exuberant; xaynïïškïnnïg ažïl-čorudulga tireless activity.
  • xayïr salty grounds. [<CT *kayïr]
  • xayïra mercy. [LM qayira]
  • xayïraan sad, regrettable, unfortunate. [LM qayiran]
  • xayïraatï lord.
  • xayïrakan name of a deity; bear. [LM qayiraqan]
  • xayïrala- to take care of, to spare, to protect. [LM qayirala-]
  • xayïralïg dear, beloved.
  • xayïrga whetstone. [LM qayirγa]
  • xayïrla- to award, to bestow. [LM qayirala-]
  • xaylïg unfortunately; unhappy, unfortunate; sinful; cursed, damned; xaylïg, bilbeyn bardïm unfortunately I did not understand; xaylïg erni eccentric, odd fellow.
  • xaylïmak a milk product made of milk skin and flour. [LM qayilmaγ]
  • xaynïïškïn boiling; xaynïïškïn točkazï boiling point; amïdïraldïŋ xaynïïškïn rush of life.
  • xažï- to be bent, to be crooked. [LM γaĵi-]
  • xažïï side; being at the side, side-. [LM qaĵiγu]
  • xeden cf. keden linnen, canvas.
  • xee pattern, decoration. [LM kege(n)]
  • xeekči rodent.
  • xeele- to decorate, to apply an ornament. [LM kegele-]
  • xeelenček patterned, decorated.
  • xeelet- to let decorate, apply an ornament.
  • xeeli bribe. [LM kegeli]
  • xeelig decorated, with ornaments.
  • xeelile- to bribe, to give bribes.
  • xeelilediiškin bribe, bribing.
  • xeerek of poor quality.
  • xek cuckoo.
  • xek-davan snowdrop (Galanthus, Amaryllidaceae).
  • xek-külü wild dove.
  • xeleske lizard; cf. seleske. [<NE *keleske]
  • xeliŋ gelung (lamaist rank). [LM gelüng ←LT dge-sloń]
  • xem river; dag xemi mountain river.
  • xemčeel measure.
  • xemčeg means, measures; norm, rule. [cf. LM kemĵige]
  • xemdi- to gnaw (a bone); to exploit.
  • xemdikče exploiter, tyrant.
  • xemdilge insufferable oppression, enslavement.
  • xemdiškin insufferable oppression, enslavement.
  • xeme boat; girl, broad. [<CT *ke:mi]
  • xemeči boatman, ferryman.
  • xemele- to go by boat.
  • xemir- to gnaw, to nibble, to bite. [<CT *kemür-]
  • xenče born in the fall (of small livestock). [LM kenĵe]
  • xendir hemp. [<CT *kendir]
  • xendirbe thoracic vertebra.
  • xenerten suddenly. [cf. LM genedte]
  • xeŋme dried meat, jerk, jerky; dried fish; lean meagre (of a person).
  • xeŋmele- to dry meat, fish, to dry-cure, to jerk
  • xep dress, clothes; form; pattern. [<CT *ke:b]
  • xer- to stretch. [<CT *ker-]
  • xerbis slope of a steep mountain, covered with a thicket (with shrubs).
  • xereežen woman.
  • xeregle- to use, to employ; to need, to wish, to strive for.
  • xereglet- to let use.
  • xereglettin- to be used.
  • xerek matter; act; act of trespassing. [LM kereg]
  • xerek need, necessary. [<CT *kerek]
  • xereksel device, tool, aid.
  • xerektig necessary. [<CT *kereklig]
  • xerel light; headlight (of a car); xün xereli sunlight. [LM gerel]
  • xereme ?squirrel.
  • xeril- to be stretched. [<CT *keril-]
  • xerim garden; court(yard), fence.
  • xerteš saddle (curvature, arch of an animals back); with a saddle-form, curved, arched; xerteš baštïg idik boots with curved toes.
  • xetpe hoe, mattock; chopper. [cf. CT *ketmen]
  • xetpele- to use hoe, to hammer, to chop.
  • xevek millet flour. [<CT *kepek]
  • xever- to swell up (of the intestines). [<CT *keber-]
  • xevir form, shape; xevir čok shapeless, unelegant.
  • xevirlig formed, shaped.
  • xevis rug, carpet. [<CT *kebiz, LM kebis]
  • xey wind, air, gas; xey sarïg heartburn. [LM kei]
  • xey in vain, empty; no way; xey čugaa empty talking, boasting; xey čüve nonsense, rubbish; xey bar- to waste; xey čerge to no purpose, in vain. [LM kei]
  • xey person, type, guy, fellow; er xey young man, youth; kandaay xey sen? what kind of a person are you?; öödežok xey-dir oŋ he seems a good-for-nothing.
  • xey-aht: xey-aht kiir- to inspire, to lend wings to; xey-aht kiirikčizi inspirer. [cf. LM kei mori wind horse]
  • xey-ot electricity; electric bulb.
  • xeymer youngest son or daughter; xeymer oglu his youngest son.
  • xeymer-kara dear one, beloved, sweetheart.
  • xileep bread. [←Rus xleb]
  • xilinček grief, torment, torture; xilinček kör- to experience grief; cf. xinček.
  • xiliŋ velvet. [LM kiling]
  • ximiren- to mutter, to grumble.
  • xin navel. [<CT *ki:n]
  • xinček cf. xilinček grief, torment, torture.
  • xindik navel; crown of the head. [<CT *kindik]
  • xir dirt, filth. [<CT *kir]
  • xir-čam filth, dirt.
  • xireendi sawdust.
  • xire more or less, about, approximately; xirede only, merely. [LM kiri]
  • xire possibility, means. [LM kiri]
  • xiree saw. [LM kirüge]
  • xirik- to become dirty, filthy. [<CT *kirik-]
  • xiriktir- to make dirty, filthy. [<CT *kiriktir-]
  • xirlig dirty, filthy. [<CT *kirlig]
  • xïg measure, extend.
  • xïg lining; idik xïï lining of a bootleg.
  • xïïrgïïš reed.
  • xïl a hair, a string. [<CT *kïl]
  • xïlaa enamel (of the teeth).
  • xïlba ramsons (Allium ursinum, Liliaceae). [NE]
  • xïlïrgay very thin (paper).
  • xïlïš sword. [<CT *kïlïč]
  • xïmïs fermented mare’s milk, kumis. [<CT *kïmïz]
  • xïmïš drinking cup; bucket; scoop. [<CT *kamïč]
  • xïn sheath, scabbard. [<CT *kï:n]
  • xïna- to check out, to control, to verify, to observe. [LM kina-]
  • xïnattïn- to be checked out.
  • xïp- (kïvar) to burn, to catch fire.
  • xïr- to scrape. [<CT *kïr-]
  • xïraa hoarfrost. [<CT *kïragu, LM kiraγu(n)]
  • xïrba glue, paste. [cf. Khak]
  • xïrbača meat reserve stored for winter (wrapped and frozen in the peritoneum).
  • xïrbala- to paste, to glue.
  • xïrgï scraper.
  • xïrïktaaš the frame of a cross-bow.
  • xïrïn stomach; belly; the skin of the belly; xïrïn tottur- to eat one’s fill. [<CT *karïn]
  • xïrtïŋ cartilage of the shoulder-blade.
  • xïyïr cross-eyed, with a squint; crooked. [cf. Khak]
  • xïyïrak steep; steep slope.
  • xïyna- to hit, to beat up; to torture.
  • xleb bread; xleb bïžïrïkčïzï baker; cf. xileep. [←Rus xleb]
  • xokkaš yearling deer.
  • xokpaŋna- to jog, trot.
  • xol arm; xol bömbüü volleyball; xol čaŋgï- to wave one’s hand. [<CT *kol]
  • xola brass, copper. [LM γauli(n), γuuli]
  • xol-xap glove(s), mitten(s).
  • xolbaalïg relation, connection.
  • xolbaš- to relate, to join, to form a relationship. [cf. LM qolbo-]
  • xolbaštïr in connection with.
  • xolda- to mind one’s own business; to take without permission; to seize with the hands (fish), to hold with both hands (e.g. a cup of tea).
  • xolgaarla- to mind one’s own business.
  • xolu- to mix, to blend, to dissolve; to shuffle (cards); to select; spirtti sug-bile xolu- to mix spirits with water; dalganga čigir xolu- to mix dough with sugar; xep xolu- to be selective in one’s choice of clothes. [LM qoli-]
  • xolumak mixed, blended. [LM qolimaγ]
  • xolura- to rustle, snort, to make a humming noise.
  • xolurt onom. for rustling or humming noise.
  • xolurtkayïn- to rustle.
  • xoluš- to mix with, to interweave.
  • xomuda- to pity, to feel sorry for; to complain; to demand; to sue. [LM γomuda-]
  • xomudaačal touchy, susceptible, quick to take offence.
  • xomudaaškïn pity; complaint; displeasure, dissatisfaction; suit.
  • xomudakčï person who complains; plaintiff.
  • xomudaksa- to be somewhat displeased, offended, resentful.
  • xomudal pity; complaint; displeasure, dissatisfaction; suit; xomudal kiir- to lodge a complaint; xomudaldar bolgaš sanaldar depteri book of complaints and suggestions. [LM γomudal]
  • xomudančïg pitiful, pitiable, poor wretched; it’s a pity that, too bad; offensive, annoying; ooŋ bögün kelbezi aray xomudančïg-dïr too bad he did not come today.
  • xomudaš- to make complaints about each other, to offend each other.
  • xomudat- to insult; setkilin xomudat- to insult.
  • xomus mouth organ, Jew’s harp. [<CT *kopuz]
  • xomusta- to play the mouth organ, Jew’s harp.
  • xomut horse collar. [←Rus xomut]
  • xon- to stay the night; to remain, to be at a place; -(A) xon- auxiliary of sudden action. [<CT *ko:n-]
  • xonak timothy-grass.
  • xonču bootleg; trouser leg.
  • xondur all night (long).
  • xonuk a day and a night, the period of 24 hours. [LM qonuγ]
  • xonuk-xuusaa periods.
  • xoo (oblong) teapot; coffee-pot.
  • xoo frame (e.g. for a painting).
  • xooču chronical disease; xooču aarïg chronical disease. [LM qaγučin]
  • xoočun old; xoočun šag old times; xoočun öŋnük old friend; xoočun kiži experienced person. [LM qaγučin]
  • xoola- to frame.
  • xoolay pipe, duct, chimney; sug agar xoolay water pipe; xoolaydan ïš dürgektelip ünüp turgan smoke was whirling up from the chimney.
  • xoolu (~ xolu) nutriciousness; xoolu čok not nutricious.
  • xoolulug nutricious, feeding; xoolulug čem nutricious food.
  • xoor light-chestnut, fallow, tan, pale-coloured (horse coat); xoor aht fallow horse. [<CT *koŋur]
  • xoor: xoor čon the people, the masses.
  • xoor- to fry. [LM qaγur-]
  • xooray town, city; xooray čoogu suburb.
  • xoorayžï city-dweller.
  • xoorgal dried-up river bed, ravine; crack, crevice (in the ice).
  • xoorza pipe, duct, chimney; ïš xoorzazï chimney; sug agar xoorza water pipe.
  • xootaraa millet (with drooping panicles).
  • xooylu law.
  • xooylu-dürüm law.
  • xoozun empty, useless; xoozun čugaa empty talking.
  • xoozura- to be poor; to ruin oneself.
  • xoozurat- to make poor, to deplete, to ruin.
  • xop gossip, slander; xop sögle- to sow discord. [LM qob]
  • xop-koču gossip; mockery, ridicule, offensive joke, insult; xop-kočaa šïnzïkpas not believing in tittle-tattle.
  • xopču gossip (person), gossiper, scandalmonger, slanderer. [LM qobči]
  • xopta- to gossip, to slander; to complain. [LM qobla-]
  • xoptaa voracity, gluttony, greed, covetousness. [cf. LM qobduγ]
  • xoptak voracious, gluttonous, greedy, covetous.
  • xor waste, wasteful.
  • xorada- to become angry. [LM qoroda-]
  • xoragay (kind of) silk.
  • xoralïg bad, evil, harmful.
  • xoram fit for, valid, satisfactory.
  • xoran poison. [LM qoora]
  • xorannïg poisonous.
  • xorgada- to take refuge, to hide oneself, to lie in hiding, to steal away.
  • xoru- to forbid; to lurk, to keep hidden, quiet. [<CT *ko:rï-]
  • xorum heap of stones, burial mound, kurgan. [<CT *korum]
  • xoržok (~ xoržak) impossible, cannot; čorbas bolza xoržok it is impossible not to go; xoržok xerek an impossible matter.
  • xos emtiness; empty, free.
  • xos- (xozar) to abandon; to love not, to not live together.
  • xosta- to free.
  • xostalga freedom.
  • xostug free.
  • xovagan butterfly. [cf. Khak]
  • xovar seldom(ly), rare(ly); deficient(ly).
  • xovu steppe, field.
  • xovul gutter; drain. [LM qobul]
  • xoy sheep. [<CT *koň]
  • xoy bosom. [cf. <CT *koyun]
  • xoygar- to let or allow to sleep together.
  • xoygaš- to sleep together. [cf. CT *koyga-]
  • xoygaštïr- to arrange to sleep together.
  • xoyla- to put in the bosom of a garment.
  • xoytpak milk that has fermented in a special manner, kumys.
  • xoytpakta- to make fermented milk, kumys.
  • xoyu- to become thick. [<CT *koyu-]
  • xoyug dense, thick; xoyug čigir sugar lump. [<CT *koyug]
  • xoyugan shy, easily scared (of a horse); xoyugan aht horse that is easily scared.
  • xoyun bosom. [<CT *koyun]
  • xoyžu shepherd. [<CT *koňčï]
  • xödelgeen rebellion, insurrection. [LM ködelgege(n)]
  • xög merriment, gaiety.
  • xög- (xöör) swell up, to rise.
  • xögle- to make merry, to rejoice. [cf. Khak]
  • xögleeškin entertainment, joy.
  • xöglüg merry, lively, jolly, cheerful.
  • xögžü- to develop, to grow. [LM kögĵi-]
  • xögžüt- to develop something.
  • xögžülde development, progress. [LM kögĵilte]
  • xögžüldelig developed.
  • xögžüm orchestra; music; xögžüm xerekseli musical instrument. [LM kögĵim]
  • xök amusement.
  • xökpek skinny yearling goat. [<CT *kökmek]
  • xökpeš titmouse.
  • xöktüg amusing.
  • xöl lake. [<CT *kö:l]
  • xöl traveller, fellow traveller. [LM köl]
  • xöl pack animal. [LM köl]
  • xöl board; plank; board (for chess and other games). [cf. LM kölge(n)]
  • xöl-šïdïraa chess; cf. šïdïraa.
  • xölčok very, greatly, terrible; xölčok ulug very big.
  • xöldüg populous, densely populated, crowded.
  • xöldüg propertied, well-off, having draught-animals; cf. xölgelig.
  • xöldüg approximately, roughly.
  • xölčüŋ-kara sweetheart, beloved.
  • xölečik ring (of a scythe). [←Rus kolečko]
  • xölege shadow. [<CT *köleke]
  • xölezile- to hire. [LM kölüsüle-]
  • xölezilen- to be a hired hand.
  • xölezilenikči hired hand, mercenary.
  • xölgelig propertied, well-off, having draught-animals; cf. xöldüg. [cf. LM kölge(n)]
  • xölze- to fuss, to bustle; to be worried, troubled, uneasy.
  • xölzeeškin cf. xölzeezin turmoil; anxiety, alarm.
  • xölzeezin (~ xölzeen) fuss, bustle, turmoil; anxiety, uneasiness, alarm; cf. xölzeeškin.
  • xölzeezinnig (~ xölzeennig) fussy, fidgety; bustling, busy; anxious, uneasy, worried, troubled.
  • xölzenčig anxious, uneasy, restive, worried, troubled; disturbing, alarming; xölzenčig medeeler alarming signals.
  • xölzeš- to fuss, bustle, be worried together.
  • xölzet- to make worried, restless, uneasy, to trouble; ol medee bügü ulustu xölzedipken this news worried all the people.
  • xöm rawhide, leather; xöm portfel’ leather wallet. [LM köm]
  • xöm- to bury, to inter. [<CT *köm-]
  • xömdün- to be buried.
  • xömeeš muzzle; halter; noose used instead of a halter.
  • xömür coal. [<CT *kömör]
  • xöne tether for calves or lambs. [LM kögene]
  • xöne- to hobble. [LM kögene-]
  • xönek teapot. [LM köneg]
  • xönü direct.
  • xöö soot. [LM köge]
  • xöölüg covered with soot.
  • xöög-xöög outcry to call cows.
  • xööküy poor, miserable.
  • xöölbek reservoir, pond, puddle, pool; kïlïmal xöölbekter artificial reservoirs.
  • xöölbekte- to make a reservoir, to dam, to block up.
  • xöölbekten- of a reservoir to form, to be dammed, blocked up.
  • xöömey throat singing; xöömeyniŋ kandïg xevilerin küüsedip šïdaar siler? šuptu xevilerin küüsedip šïdaar men what styles of throat singing can you perform? I can produce all the styles. [LM kögemei pharynx, throat]
  • xöömeyle- to sing in throat singing style.
  • xöömeylet- to let sing in throat singing style.
  • xöömeyži singer in throat singing style; Tïvada xereežen xöömeyžiler bar be? iže, bar are there women throat singers in Tuva? yes, there are; čurtuŋarda anïžak xöömeyžiler bar be? are there any young throat singers in your country?
  • xöön harmony; athmosphere; mood, temper, wish, spirits; xöŋnü his/her mood, temper; xöön čem čiir xöŋnüm čogul I don’t feel like eating, I don’t want to eat; cf. köön. [<CT *köŋül]
  • xöönnüg-xöönčük reluctantly, unwillingly.
  • xöör grave; graveyard, cemetary.
  • xööre- to seethe, to boil up, to boil over; of the sun to rise; tell with enthusiasm; to exaggerate; to exalt in; čürek xööre- to get violent, to behave violently. [LM kögere-]
  • xöörem exaggerated.
  • xööreš- to discuss, to converse.
  • xöörük burunduk, chipmunk. [cf. NE *körük]
  • xöörük-kat bearberry (the shrub and the berry).
  • xöörüüs mountain ash, rowan-tree.
  • xööržüt- to bury.
  • xöpeen (hay)stack. [←Rus kopna]
  • xör snowdrift; cf. xörtuk. [LM kör]
  • xör disavowel, denial, concealment or non-recognition of a fault. [LM gör]
  • xörek breast, chest; upper front part (of e.g. rocks). [<CT *kökrek]
  • xörekte- to raise the voice against.
  • xörekten- to raise the voice, to swear, to curse.
  • xörekteš- to raise the voice, swear, curse against one another.
  • xörektet- to be abused, cursed at.
  • xöreŋgi sour dough; xoytpak xöreŋgizi kumys yeast. [LM körüngge(n)]
  • xöreŋgi means, facilities, money. [LM körüngge(n)]
  • xöreŋgiten capitalist, rich. [LM körünggeten]
  • xörlee smouldering, burning without flames.
  • xörleelee- to smoulder, to burn without flames.
  • xörtük cf. xör snowdrift. [<CT *körtük]
  • xörük bellows; xörük bas- to press the bellows. [<CT *kö:rük]
  • xörükte- to operate the bellows; to blow through. [<CT *kö:rükle-]
  • xöveŋ cotton. [LM köbeng]
  • xöy much, many; more.
  • xöyleŋ shirt. [<CT köŋlek]
  • xuna he-goat, buck.
  • xunaa- to deprive, to take away.
  • xunan cf. kunan male or female calf or foal or yak in its third year. [LM γuna(n)]
  • xuragan lamb. [LM quraγa(n)]
  • xural meeting, gathering, assembly; niiti xural general assembly. [LM qural]
  • xuralda- to assemble, to convene. [LM quraldu-]
  • xuraldaa meeting, gathering, assembly. [LM quraldaγan]
  • xuu part, share; percentage. [LM qubi]
  • xuu-salïm fate, lot, portion.
  • xuul- to turn into. [LM qubil-]
  • xuulgaan degenerate, renegade; sorcerer, magician, wizzard; yurodivy (“God’s fool”); old fox. [LM qubilγan]
  • xuuŋ (wooden) pail.
  • xuuŋnuk little pail.
  • xuurak monk in a Buddhist monastry. [LM qubaraγ]
  • xuusaa period, time; xonuk-xuusaa periods. [LM quγučaγa(n)]
  • xuvaa- to share, to divide. [LM qubiya-]
  • xuvïskaal revolution [LM qubisqal]
  • xuvïskaalčï revolutionary, revolutionizer. [LM qubisqalči]
  • xuvïskaalčï- to be revolutionised.
  • xuvïskaalčït- to revolutionise.
  • xuvïskaaldïg revolutionary.
  • xül ashes. [<CT *kül]
  • xülbüs roebuck; cf. külbüs. [<CT *külmiz]
  • xülčük swarm of midges.
  • xülčüktel- of midges to swarm.
  • xülee- to receive (a guest); to take (a decision); to recognise as; to take the responsibility; aalčïlarnï xüleep al- to receive the guests; šiitpirni xüleep al- to take the decision; bodunuŋ čazïïn xüleep kör- to recognise one’s mistake; buruuzun xülee- to take responsibility for one’s fault. [LM küliye-]
  • xüleekči examiner, inspector.
  • xüleelge obligation, duty; function; responsibility; bodunuŋ xüleelgezi küüset- to fulfil one’s rol of, to act as; xüleelge al- to take the responsibility; alban xüleelgeleri official functions. [LM küliyelge]
  • xüleen- to take the obligation of, to pledge oneself.
  • xüleendir- to oblige, to commission, to charge with.
  • xüleeniš- to commit to one another, to take the obligation together; to transfer to one another.
  • xüleeš- to commit to one another, to take the obligation together; to transfer to one another.
  • xüleet- to oblige, to commission, to charge with, to hand over, to hand in; ažïldï xüleedip ber- to hand over the work to; xarïïsalga xüleet- to bring to trial, to make answerable for, to institute proceedings against.
  • xüler bronze. [LM küler ~ kürel]
  • xülümzüre- (~ xülümzürü-) to smile. [<CT *külümsire-]
  • xümüš silver. [<CT *kümüš]
  • xün day; sun; xün dudum all day. [<CT *kün]
  • xündü honour, respect, esteem. [LM kündü]
  • xündülüg honoured.
  • xündüle- to honour, to respect, to esteem. [LM kündüle-]
  • xündülel respect, esteem. [LM kündülel]
  • xündüs in daytime; xündüskü čïrïk daylight. [<CT *kündüz]
  • xündütkel respect, esteem.
  • xündütlel respect, esteem.
  • xünezin provisions, lunch. [LM künesü(n)]
  • xünneečel jealous; xünneečel kiži jealous person.
  • xünnüŋ every day, daily.
  • xünze- to pass the day.
  • xür satisfied; prosperous; healthy. [<CT *kür]
  • xüree temple, monastery. [LM küriye(n)]
  • xüree-xag puff-ball (a mushroom).
  • xüree-xiit church, temple.
  • xüreele- to surround, to gather round, to encirle, to crowd. [LM küriyele-]
  • xüreeleeškin milieu, surroundings; kapitalistig xüreeleeškin capitalist milieu.
  • xüreelel milieu, surroundings.
  • xüreeleŋ milieu, surroundings, ranks; partiyanïŋ xüreeleŋi the ranks of the party; komsomolču xüreeleŋ the Komsomol ranks. [LM küriyeleng]
  • xüreelet- to be surrounded, encirled.
  • xüreelettir- to be surrounded, encirled.
  • xüreŋ brown. [LM küreng]
  • xüreš a wrestling match, wrestling.
  • xüreš- to wrestle. [<CT *küreš-]
  • xürgül brown.
  • xürtü screw, propeller, motor. [LM kürdü(n)]
  • xürüm (religious) service, joint prayer. [LM gürim ←LT sku-rim]
  • xüürek spade; (coll.) spoon. [<CT *kürek]