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Etymological Legend
Ch Chinese
CT Common Turkic
Kh Khalkha Mongolian
Khak Khakas
LM Literary Mongolian
LT Literary Tibetan
NE Northeastern Turkic
Rus Russian
Skt Sanskrit
  • baalïk saddle shaped mountain.
  • baalïŋ enamel. [LM palang ←Ch]
  • baar liver; baar aarïï liver disease; baar ehdi diaphragm; baarï ažï- to be very upset; baarïnïŋ ödü bolgan dearly loved. [<CT *bagïr]
  • baarï frontside; dag baarï the front of a mountain; tayganïŋ baarïnda in the front part of the tayga; meeŋ baarïmda in front of me.
  • baarlïg having a liver (as the seat of the emotions); kara-baarlïg hard-hearted; sook-baarlïg cold-hearted; čïlïg baarlïg warm-hearted, kind. [<CT *bagïrlïg]
  • baartak counter.
  • baartïk apron. (←Rus fartuk ←Pol ←Ger Vortuch)
  • baarzïk cf. kara-baarzïk thrush, starling.
  • baarzïk pancreas gland. [<CT *bagïrsok]
  • baažï(zï) simulation, pretence; cunning, slyness, guile, craft; ruse; hint (to the answer of a riddle). [cf. LM bači]
  • bačïda- to hurry, to be in a hurry, to make haste, to rush; to fusss, to bustle; to worry or bother oneself; to become more ill; aarïg kiži bačïdap tur the patient’s condition worsened.
  • bačïdaaškïn serious condition, crisis.
  • bačïm urgent, pressing; hasty, hurried; bustling, given to fussing; strained, tense, difficult; sultry; confusion, turmoil, bustle; bačïm ažïl urgent work; bačïm čoruk urgent journey; bačïm üye difficult time. [LM bačim]
  • bačïmna- to hurry, to be in a hurry, to make haste, to rush; to fuss, to bustle; to worry or bother oneself. [cf. LM bačïmda-]
  • bačït sin, evil. [LM barčit ←LT]
  • badïla- [bahdïla] to vote; to approve, to confirm, to affirm; to register. [LM batula-]
  • badïlaaškïn [bahdïlaaškïn] vote; approval, confirmation; registration.
  • badïlal vote; approval, confirmation; (marriage) registration.
  • badïlaš- to vote together; to approve or confirm together; to register one’s marriage.
  • badïlažïïškïn (marriage) registration, marriage ceremony, wedding.
  • badïr- to bring down, to lower; to reduce; to degrade; to float; to perform a song; (of children) to cry; xuuŋnu kudukče badïr- to lower the pail in the well; sug badïr- to drain off water; örtek badïr- to lower the price; kudu badïr- to send down from the mountain into the valley, or downstream; badïrïvït če! come on, sing! [<CT *batur-]
  • badïrtïr- to let bring down, lower, reduce, degrade, float, sing.
  • badïtka- [bahdïtka-] to confirm. [LM batudqa-]
  • badïtkal confirmation, proof.
  • bag strap, thong, belt; lasso; tie, leash, tether; bag kur leather strap, leather belt; bagda on the leash, tether. [<CT *ba:g]
  • bagana column, pillar, post, pole. [LM baγana]
  • bagay [bahgay] bad, ugly; not sufficient, not satisfying; poor; bagay xeme bad boat; bagay ažïl unsatisfactory work; bagay agaar bad weather.
  • bagay-sogay [bahgay-sohgay] bad, unimportant.
  • bagla- to tie, to bind; snop bagla- to bind sheaves; xoldarïn bagla- to tie one’s hands. [<CT *ba:gla-]
  • baglaaš tie, strap; aht baglaažï horse reins.
  • baglakčï binder (of sheaves).
  • baglan- to tie oneself. [<CT *ba:glan-]
  • baglaš- to tie together; to be tied in a knot, (of a knot) to be tightened.
  • baglat- to let tie; to be tied. [<CT *ba:glan-]
  • bak [bahk] bad, evil; negligent; unfortunate; weak; bak kiži bad person; bak aažï bad habits; bak čaŋna- to treat badly; bakka sug- to defame, to villify.
  • bak-sok [bahk-sohk] unimportant, rather bad; bak-sok čüveler goods and chattels, belongings.
  • bakïla- [bakkïla-] to throw a glance, to peep in.
  • bakka-sokka hardly, barely.
  • baksïra- to become worse; to grow weak; to wear out, to be used up; agaar baksïraan the weather turned worse.
  • bakta- to scold, to abuse, to criticize, to slander, to discredit, to calumniate.
  • baktaa- [bahktaa-] to form, to be part of, to be a member of; komissiyanïŋ sostavïnga baktaap kir- to become member of the committee. [LM baγta-]
  • baktaaškïn the act of becoming a part or member of.
  • baktaaškïn swearing, bad language, slander, calumny.
  • baktat- to be scolded, slandered, discredited.
  • bala fault; harm, damage; bo seeŋ balaŋ this is your fault! balazï-bile through someone’s fault.
  • bala pestle.
  • bala graphite; that which stains (of metals). [LM bala]
  • bala- to erase, to blot out, to obliterate; to cross out, to strike out. [LM balala-]
  • balaaš eraser, rubber.
  • balalïg causing damage, harmful.
  • balalïg stained, soiled (of metals).
  • balančak small child.
  • balar slime, mire, silt. [cf. Khak balïr]
  • balar former, ex, old. [LM balar]
  • balara- to have aching muscles.
  • balaš- to obliterate one another.
  • balaš- to soil each other, to make each other dirty.
  • balat- to let erase, blot out; to let cross out, to strike out.
  • baldï [bahldï] axe. [<CT *balto, LM balta]
  • baldïr [bahldïr] calf of the leg; money. [<CT *baltïr]
  • balïg wound; scab; balïg kiži wounded person. [<CT *ba:lïg]
  • balïgla- to injure, to wound; of a wound to occur. [<NE *balïgla-]
  • balïglaaškïn wound, injury, wounding.
  • balïglat- to be wounded, to get wounded.
  • balïglattïr- to be wounded, to get wounded.
  • balïïrgan- to feel pain (of a wound), to be sensitive to pain.
  • balïk fish; sööktüg balïk ide (carp); balïk tïvïïškïn fishing, the catching of fish; balïk münü fish soup; balïk üzü fish oil; balïk üürgenezi fish roe. [<CT *ba:lïk]
  • balïkčï fisherman. [<CT *ba:lïkčï]
  • balïkta- to fish, to catch fish.
  • balïktïg rich in fish, teeming with fish; balïktïg xöl lake rich in fish. [<CT *ba:lïklïg]
  • bar there is, present; ïndïg dürüm bar there is such a regulation; mende ol nom bar I have that book. [<CT *ba:r]
  • bar [< baar] going; ahttïg ulus bar čïdïr the horsemen moved away. [< *barar]
  • bar- (baar) to go, to go a way, to leave, to part; -(I)p bar- auxiliary verb indicating ‘being in a situation’; -(I)p bar čït- to go to, to go away; men čoruy bardïm I left; aht maŋnap čoruy bargan the horse had run away; közülbeyn bar- to be invisible; kančap bardïŋ? what is the matter with you?; ašakka bar- (of a woman) to marry; bažï-bile bar- to be lacking, missing, lost; baardï s/he went. [<CT *bar-]
  • bar-čok scanty, small, trifle.
  • bar-čoktug scanty, small, trifle.
  • bara fish-trap. [cf. Khak para]
  • baraan goods, stuff, ware, merchandise. [LM baraγa(n)]
  • baraan outline, contours, silhouette; baraan bol- to serve; čonunga baaraan bol- to serve the people. [LM baraγa(n)]
  • baraanna- to go to buy goods.
  • baraanna- to watch, to observe.
  • baraban drum. [←Rus baraban]
  • baraskan poor person, pauper; inhabitant.
  • barba bag of goat leather.
  • bardam impudent, coarse; arrogant, conceited, presumptious; irascible. [LM bardam]
  • bardamna- to be arrogant, conceited; to boast of one’s strength (in games, wrestling). [LM bardamna-]
  • barï presence, availability, on hand, cash; akšanïŋ barï cash money; erge-žok čugula baydaldarnïŋ barï the presence of indispensable conditions.
  • barïïn western; right-winged (politics). [LM baraγun]
  • barïk almost. [LM baruγ]
  • barïmdaa base, basis; reason, grounds, cause; proof, argument; evidence, certificate; kandïg-daa barïmdaa čokka without any reason; barïmdaaï čül? on what grounds?; škola dooskanïnïŋ barïmdaazï a certificate of having completed school. [LM barimta]
  • barïmdaala- to be based or founded on; to observe, to keep to, to take into account, to stick to; dürümnü barïmdaala- to observe the rules. [LM barimtala-]
  • bas- [bahs-] to press; to tread; kattïŋ suun sï bas- to squeeze out the juice of berries; demdek bas- to stamp, to brand; bazar aht ambler; bazar čüve pistol. [<CT *bas-]
  • baska hammer.
  • baskaktan- [bahskaktan-] to sit cross-legged.
  • baskïïš step, footstep; pedal; key; metal or horn badge (for fastening the seat to the saddle frame).
  • baskïlaš- to be heaped or piled up, to be loaded with.
  • baskïlaštïr- to heap up, to pile, to load with.
  • bastïg-: xaram bastïg- to have a nightmare.
  • bastïr- to oppress, to lower; to abuse; to be oppressed; to thresh (grain); to step; to amble. [<CT *bastur-]
  • baš [bahš] head; top, summit; end, tip; ear (of grain); head (counter for livestock); beginning, origin, source; -NIŋ bažïnda on top of, at the head of; bažïndan from the beginning; sigen bažï ear of grass; dag bažï mountain top; xem bažï the upstream part of a river; baš teyi crown of the head; baš söögü skull; baš šüürü comb; baš muŋgaš dead end, situation with no way out. [<CT *baš]
  • baš-tenider puzzle, conundrum.
  • baška [bahška] besides, except for; senden baška except for you; boordan baška except for its being. [<CT *baška]
  • baškala- to separate, to isolate.
  • baškalaaškïn separation, isolation, section division.
  • baškalan- to get rid of, to shake off, to throw off.
  • baškalančak separate, isolated from.
  • baškalandïr- to separate, to isolate.
  • baškar- [bahškar-] to manage, to regulate, to put right; to equip, to fit out (for a journey); to steer; kudumču šimčeeškinin baškar- to regulate the trafic; korabldi baškar- to steer the ship. [<CT *baškar-]
  • baškarïkčï manager; leader.
  • baškart- to let manage, regulate, equip, steer.
  • baškï [bahškï] teacher. [<CT *baxšï, cf. LM baγsi ←Ch]
  • baškï first; front-, anterior; initial.
  • baškïla- to teach, to educate.
  • baškïlaaškïn education.
  • bašta- to lead, to direct, to govern, to be at the head of, to guide; baštaar organnar authorities; baštaar čer government. [<CT *bašla-]
  • baštak [bahštak] witty, humerous, comic; joke, humour; joker, jester. [<CT *baštak]
  • baštaktan- to make jokes, to tease.
  • baštaktanïš- to tell jokes to one another.
  • baštal- to be in the ear, to form ears (of grass).
  • baštalga guidance, leadership.
  • baštaŋgï [bahštaŋgï] bridal veil.
  • baštat- to entrust the leadership.
  • baštay for the first time; eŋ-ne baštaygï very first, initial.
  • baštïg with a head, headed; with a leader; wise. [<CT *bašlïg]
  • baštïŋ [bahštïŋ] leader, head; the leader (in a herd); aymaktïŋ baštïŋï leader of the clan.
  • baštïŋčï leader, chief; ažïlčï čonnuŋ baštïŋčïzï leader of the working people; klass baštïŋčï baškïzï class teacher.
  • bat- [baht-] to go down, to descend, to plunge, to sink, to flow; kudu bat- to walk downstream. [<CT *bat-]
  • bay rich; a rich person; čuduruk bay rich farmer (cf. Rus kulak). [<CT *ba:y]
  • bayaatan (~ bayat) rich person.
  • baybaŋ garrulous, talkative; talkativeness, garrulity; unduly familiar (behaviour).
  • baydal position, status, state, condition, circumstance, situation. [LM bayidal]
  • baydaldïg situated, located, being in a position; berge baydaldïg being in a difficult position; eki baydaldïg being in a good position.
  • bayï- to be or become rich. [<CT *ba:yu-]
  • bayïïrga- to take pride in one’s wealth, to boast. [LM bayarqa-]
  • bayïr festivity; greeting, welcome; bayïr čedir- to welcome, to greet, to congratulate. [LM bayar]
  • bayïrla- to celebrate; to greet. [LM bayarla-]
  • bayïrlal holiday, festivity. [LM bayarlal]
  • bayïrlïg festive, ceremonial; greeting, welcoming; goodbye; bayïrlïg xural ceremonial meeting; bayïrlïg telegramma welcoming telegram; bayïrlïg ešter! goodbye, friends! [cf. LM bayartai]
  • bayïsaa- (~ baysaa-) to interrogate, to question. [LM baičaγa-]
  • bayïsaakčï (~ baysaakčï) investigator. [LM baičaγaγči]
  • bayïsaalga (~ baysaalga) interrogation, examination. [LM baičağalğa]
  • bayïsaat- to be interrogated.
  • bayït- to make rich. [<CT *ba:yut-]
  • bayla- to come to an end, to become empty (of a glass).
  • baylak rich; richness, wealth; resources, treasures; baylak čurt rich land; boydus baylaktarï natural resources; materialdïg baylaktar material resources; ištiki baylaktarnï mobilizastaarï mobilisation of internal resources; kazïmal baylaktar useful resources.
  • baylaŋ fry, young fish.
  • baytïk not only. [cf. LM baituγai]
  • bayza boundary post.
  • baza [bahza] and, still, more, yet, another, already; saazïn baza karandaš paper and pencil; baza bir kiži keldi another person came; meŋee baza nomdan bir ber give me yet another book. [LM basa]
  • bazïm [bahzïm] step.
  • bazïmča [bahzïmča] insult, abuse. [LM basumji]
  • bazïmčala- [bahzïmčala-] to humiliate, to abase, to insult, to offend, to abuse; to mock, to jeer at; to consider weak, feeble; ol meni bazïmčalaaš šïdïraaga utturupkan s/he beat me at chess and considered me weak.
  • bazïn- (bastïr) to humiliate, to abase, to insult, to offend, to mock, to jeer at. [<CT *basïn-]
  • bazïr- to press. [<CT *basur-]
  • bazïtkïïš metal or horn badge (for fastening the seat to the saddle frame).
  • baža brother-in-law (wife’s sister’s husband). [<CT *ba:ča]
  • bažalaš- to be or become brothers-in-law.
  • bažalïškïlar (~ bažaškïlar) brothers-in-law (husbands of sisters).
  • bažï-kurlug index finger (in games).
  • bažïŋ house, log hut, building; prison, jail; škola bažïŋï school building; bažïŋ adrezi home address; bažïŋ xerekselderi household utensils; bažïŋga kir- to go to prison; bažïŋ kižizi prisoner, inmate. [LM baising]
  • bažïŋna- to be in prison, to be locked up in jail.
  • bažïŋnan- to own a house, building.
  • bažïŋnat- to get locked up in prison.